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Ap Human Geography Chapter 4
Terms in this set (47)
The process of adopting some of the cultural traits or social patterns of the dominant group (while still practicing some of one's own culture).
The material manifestations of culture,
including tools, housing, buildings, systems of land use, clothing, etc.
Final completion of the cultural acculturation process, when a culture group loses all its original traits and becomes fully a part of a different dominating culture (Sometimes forced to do so, other times happens over generations).
Belief that human culture is ultimately more important than physical environment in shaping human actions. Human culture is the modifier of nature for good or bad.
The process by which a cultural element
spreads from its hearth across space and time (expansion and relocation)
They study of a human group's
interaction with its natural environment.
A specific area within which an advanced and distinctive set of culture traits, ideas and technologies develops and from which there is diffusion of those characteristics and the cultural landscape features they imply.
This is created when people modify the earth's surface to meet their specific needs and lifestyles. (Includes buildings, roadways,etc.) Can express both folk culture or pop culture (pop culture landscape = uniform landscape)
The principle that a person's beliefs & behaviors should be seen in the context of their culture and not be judged as inferior just because it's different from yours. It's the opposite of ethnocentrism
the sum total of the knowledge, attitudes,
and habitual behavior patterns shared and transmitted by members of a society
A region within which common cultural
A single, distinguishing feature of regular occurrence within a culture, such as the use of chopsticks or the observance of a particular caste system. Ex. Terracing of land for crop growth, building roads across mountain ranges, wearing colorful clothing with the group's own skillful weave etc.
The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of the group of people performing the act. It's a behavior not an object.
Using one's own cultural identity as the superior standard by which to judge others. Thinking your culture is better than someone else's.
Culture traditionally practiced by a
small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
A repetitive act performed by a
The tangible, physical items produced and used by members of a specific culture group and reflective of their traditions, lifestyles and technologies.
Anything on the landscape that comprises culture that cannot be physically touched (ie. Language or religion)
a standard, model, or pattern for appropriate behavior ("rules" to live by in a society). Typical or expected behaviors.
Culture found in a large, heterogeneous society that shares certain habits despite differences in other personal characteristics.
Blending together of two or more cultural influences (like religion or language). The term is often used in a religious context to refer to the blending of different faiths to create a new faith. A creole would be an example of syncretism.
A restriction on behavior imposed by a
social custom. Something or some behavior that is prohibited.
The contribution of a location's distinctive physical features to the way food tastes. Where food is grown will affect its flavor.
Cultural change caused by adopting aspects of a foreign culture (it's different from acculturation because the sharing is between cultures of equal size and strength; it isn't about becoming more like a dominant culture - its cultural borrowing)
The spatial expression of a popular
custom in one location being similar to another.
To be able to speak two languages with
the facility of a native speaker.
Creoles are pidgin languages that have become the native language of a place. Creoles are created when a colonizer's language mixes with an indigenous language.
local or regional characteristics of a
Dialect spoken by some African
a language no longer used
A term used by the French for English words that have entered the French language, the combination of French and English. It's an example of transculturation.
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or a concept rather than a specific sound
a line that separates dialects or words
that are used in certain parts of the country
A language that is unrelated to any other language and therefore not attached to any language family
a set of sounds, combination of sounds,
and symbols that are used for communication
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago; differences are not as extensive or as old as with language families, evidence can be found that they go back to the same family
A collection of languages related to each
other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display few differences in grammar and vocabulary
divisions within a language family where the commonalities are more definite and the origin is more recent. Same as language branch.
Language used to facilitate trade among groups speaking different languages. (Lingua francas are established languages that have native speakers - note difference between this and pidgins)
A language that is written as well as
Language selected by a country to
represent its identity in courts and government proceedings
A simplified language that develops as a means of communication between two or more groups that do not have a language in common - mostly for trade purposes. Can happen when an area is colonized and languages are blended. There are NO native speakers of this language.
The notion that successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place, each contributing to the cumulative cultural landscape. In Italy, for example, there are still buildings from the time of the Romans, alongside modern structures
A mixture of Spanish and English, often spoken in North America. It's NOT a pidgin. There's a traceable history. It's not limited in vocab or grammar. It's not spoken out of necessity, but rather convenience. It's an example of transculturation.
The variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life (may not actually be the same as the official language).
A form of Latin used in daily conversation by ancient Romans, as opposed to the standard dialect, which was used for official documents.
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