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statements regarding endocrine gland hormones, functions, and disorders (i.e., adrenal gland; pancreas; parathyroid glands; pineal gland; thyroid gland).

Pineal gland

A small cone-shaped gland located in epithalamus.. Its major endocrine product is melatonin during the night and serotonin during the day.
much larger in children than in adults
secretions peak between 1-5 years and decline 75% by the end of puberty


Hormone released by the pineal gland in response to daily cycles of light and dark. may be related to Seasonal affective disorder (depression during winter) as well as PMS

thymus gland

Gland located above the heart, shrinks after puberty
; it aids in the body's defence against infection by making antibodies, white blood cells and T-lymphocytes.

Thyroid gland

Location: divided into two lateral lobes and lie on each side of trachea.
butterfly shaped
functioning to secrete triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and calcitonin
c-cells- produce and secrete calcitonin (CT)

adrenal gland

An endocrine gland located adjacent to the kidney in mammals; composed of two glandular portions: an outer cortex, which responds to endocrine signals in reacting to stress and effecting salt and water balance, and a central medulla, which responds to nervous inputs resulting from stress.


condition of hyposecrtion from thyroid gland in children that results in a lack of mental development and dwarfed physical stature


enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by thyroid dysfunction, tumor, lack of iodine in the diet, or inflammation (goiter = throat)


excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally high levels of calcium in the blood. Bones become brittle. Also may cause kidney stones


inadequate secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting in abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood. Associated with muscle tetanus


"salt-retaining hormone" which promotes the retention of Na+ by the kidneys. na+ retention promotes water retention, which promotes a higher blood volume and pressure


secreted from the adrenal cortex, aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels. Breaks down proteins and lipids into amino acids and fatty acids to increase glucose


exocrine and endocrine gland. Has 3 types of cells, has blood vessels

diabetes mellitus

condition that occurs when the pancreas produces too little insulin, resulting in an increase in the level of blood glucose


abnormally low blood sugar usually resulting from excessive insulin or a poor diet.

Type 1 diabetes

the type of diabetes in which the pancreas produces no or very little insulin; often diagnosed in childhood, although some cases arise in adulthood. formerly called juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes

type 2 diabetes

gradual onset and is the most common form. diagnosed in adults 40 and older from the bodies deficiency in producing enough insulin.
body stops responding to insulin

parathyroid glands

there are four and they are embedded in the surface of the thyroid, function in the homeostasis of calcium ions. They secrete Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which raises blood levels of calcium and thus has an effect opposite to that of the thyroid hormone calcitonin.

parathyroid horomone

raises blood calcium levels by promoting calcitriol synthesis. increase role for kidneys and remove calcium from urine

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