Terms in this set (128)
Issues for Black Southerners?
Finding jobs, prejudice, struggle to find food, clothing, etc. Many went back to the plantations
Issues for Plantation Owners?
Loss of free labor, Must now pay workers, Rebuilding destroyed property, Loss of money (Confederate money is now worthless)
Issues for Poor, White Southerners?
Competition for employment, Money is worthless, rebuild damaged property
Prior to his death, what was Lincoln making a plan for?
Reconstruction (to plan and restore Southern states)
What did LINCOLN'S Reconstruction plan consist of?
1: Offered a full pardon to any Confed that pledged allegiance to the Union
2: Denied pardons to Confed military and government officials who killed African American war prisoners
3: After 10% of voters took the pledge, state governments could be reformed and join the Union
Where is this from? "With malice towards none, with charity for all"
Lincoln's 2nd Inaugral Address
Difference between Lincoln and Johnson's push for forgiveness?
Johnson was way more loose on forgiving
Under Johnson, who was pardoned?
Southerners who swore allegiance to the Union
Under Johnson, what was each state allowed to do?
Each state was permitted to draw up a new Constitution WITHOUT the 10% alliegance
Under Johnson, what was required to hold elections and rejoin the Union?
Voiding secession and abolishing slavery
How did Radical Republicans feel?
Wanted to punish the South and were upset with both Reconstruction plans. They wanted to ensure equality and freedom of the freed slaves
Who did the Radical Republicans wage a political war with?
The Executive Branch
Assisted free blacks and white war veterans in re-entering society by providing food, shelter, and education
What led to Johnson's impeachment?
Tussling with Congress and fighting over hiring & firing powers over the Executive Branch
Charging an elected official with wrongdoing in office
How many members of the House of Rep. voted to impeach Johnson?
Where does the impeachment trial go?
To the Senate, where 2/3 of the Senate must vote for Johnson to be removed from office
Why was Johnson allowed to stay in office?
Senate fell one vote short of a guilty verdict
What precedent was set about impeachments?
It would be reserved for serious crimes not petty arguments
Who won the election of 1868?
Ulysses S. Grant, a Republican who would work with fellow Republicans in Congress
Who was a minority in the South, even though they controlled the Reconstruction?
North Republicans who moved South for business opportunites
What was slow in the south?
Why was economic recovery slow in the south?
Plantation owner struggle to find workers and freeman searched for work
Former slaves work the field in exchange for a share in the crops and housing, it was similar to slavery
Farmers would rent land and plant what they please
Industry took hold in the south as factories provided what?
Employment opportunities: Atlanta, Charlotte, Memphis, Nashville went up in population
What did the the strengthening of the Democratic Party in the south in the corruption in the federal government lead to?
The end of the Reconstruction
Who formed the KKK and when?
Former Confederate soldiers in 1866
Who did the KKK target?
Blacks, and any supporter of the Republican Party
The Enforcement Act of 1870?
Banned used of terror to prevent people from voting
What happened to the KKK by the 1870s?
Federal troops arrested thousands of members & the group became nearly invisible
What did public apathy and the election of 1876 lead to?
The end of the Reconstruction
Republican Rutherford B. Hayes edged who?
Samuel Tilden, who won the popular vote by one electoral vote with 4 states in dispute
What did the Compromise of 1877 award?
Awarded The presidency to Hayes while the Republicans agreed to remove all federal troops remaining in southern states
The lure of riches enticed some to invest in big business while other searched for success by..
venturing into the frontiers out west
Conditions that forced a move west
What were some push factors?
Out-of-work farmers, former slaves and soldiers need new opportunities
Farmland in the east very costly
Immigrants and some religious groups seeking escape from oppression
Conditions that attracted a move west
An example of pull factors?
Pacific Railway Acts in the early 1860s and the Homestead Act of
Pacific Railways Act
Government gives large land grant to Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads to construct railways to the Pacific Ocean,
Railroads re-sold land near rail lines to settlers looking for new business opportunities; towns and cities arise along the railroads
Homestead Act of 1862?
Settlers could purchase 160 acres of land for a small fee plus meet certain conditions
Conditions for the Homestead Act?
At least 21 and head of a family
An American citizen or have applied for citizenship
Build a house of a certain size and live there for 6 months out of the year
Farm the land for 5 consecutive years before ownership is transferred
The movement west put the settlers in direct competition for land with..?
The Native Americans
Early settlers took up..
mining, ranching, and farming, which soon grew into big industries
What originally brought miners West and Northwesr?
Gold rush of the 1850s
What method did miners use for mining silver and gold?
The placer method
Towns and cities popped up to..
support the rush of prospectors
What was needed to reach precious metals deep in the earth, giving rise to the entry of technology-rich big business?
What supplanted pork as "America's meat" after the Civil War and the price of cattle grew nearly tenfold in the 1870s
Why was Texas as the heart of the cattle industry?
"Cowboys" drove cattle north along the Chisholm Trail to railroads in Kansas
What cut costs and allowed cattle to be shipped after slaughter?
Technology like the refrigerated railroad car
Homesteaders often lived in eastern homes called
What lead to bonanza farms?
New technologies (steel plow, grain drill, mechanized reaper)
Specialized in cash crops (corn, wheat, potatoes)
Laws that restricted freedmen's rights ,They established virtual slavery with provisions
Black people could not gather after sunset
Freedmen convicted of vagrancy, not working- could be fined, whipped, or sold for a year's labor
Freedmen had to sign agreements in January for a year of work. Those who quit in the middle of a contract often lost all wages they had earned
Freed people could rent land or homes only in rural areas. This restriction forced them to live on plantations
Republicans in Congress blamed President Johnson for..?
Southern Democrats return to Congress
To end Reconstruction, Congress tried to do what
bypass the President making amendments to the Constitution
What outlawed black codes?
Congress passed the Civil Rights Act in early 1866
What did Johnson try to veto but Congress stopped it
Tried to veto the Civil Rights Act
What did Congress decide to build equal rights into
When was the 14th Amendment passed
Stated that the states did not have the right to take away natural citizen's rights
Congressional Republicans who drafted the 14th Amendment consisted of..?
2 major groups: Moderates and Radicals
Most Republicans saw themselves as..?
What is a moderate in politics
a moderate is someone who supports the mainstream views of the party, not the more extreme
What did the Radicals and Moderates have in common
both opposed Johnson's Reconstruction policies, opposed the spread of the black codes, and favored the expansion of the Republican Party in the South
What did Moderates not believe?
Moderates were not in favor of the Radical's goal of granting African Americans civil rights
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Calling for "reform not revenge," Radicals in Congress passed the Reconstruction Act of 1867
Main provisions of the Reconstruction Act of 1867?
1: Southern States would be under rule by Northern Generals
2: Southern States would have to create new constitutions
3: States would be required to give the vote to all qualified male voters (Even African Americans)
4: Supporters of the Confed were temporarily banned from voting
5: Southern States required to guarantee equal rights to all citizens
6: All states required to ratify the 14th Amendment
When was the 15th Admendment passed and what did it do?
Feb 1869: Congress passed the 15th Amendment, granting African American men the right to vote
In 1867 and 68: Voters in Southern States chose delegates to draft what?
New state constitutions, a quarter of these delegates were black
What did new state constitutions do?
guaranteed civil rights, allowed poor people to hold political office, and set up a system of public schools and orphanages
What were huge steps for black people in 1870?
Southern black men voted in legislative elections for the first time
More than 600 African Americans were elected to state legislatures,
Louisiana gained a black governor,
Hiram Revels of MIssissippi became the first African American elected to the Senate
Sharecropping cycle of debt?
Poor whites and freedmen have no jobs, homes, money to buy land
Poor whites and freedmen sign contracts to work a landlord's acreage in exchange for a part of the crop
Landlord keeps track of the money that sharecroppers owe him for housing and food
At harvest time, the sharecroppers owes more to the landlord than his share of the crop is worth
Sharecropper cannot leave the farm as long as he is in debt to the landlord
Family farmed a portion of the planter's land
As payment, the family was promised a share of the crop at harvest time
After the harvest, some planters evicted the sharecroppers without pay or charged them for housing or other expenses for that they were in debt at the end of the year
Many sharecropping families were in debt at the end of the year and were trapped on plantations
Tenant farmers did not own the land they farmed.
The tenant farmer paid to rent the landlord and chose which crops to plant and how much to work.
Tenant farming created a class of wealthy merchants who sold supplies on credit.
Sharecropping and tenant farming encouraged planters to grow what?
cash crops, such as cotton, tobacco, and sugarcane. The South had to import much of its food
Southern leaders saw the industrialized northern economy and realized...?
a unique opportunity to build an industrialized economy in the South
What was becoming a major metropolis in the South
One problem with industrialization of the South?
most southern factories handled the earlier, less profitable stages of manufacturing. The items were shipped north to be made into finished products and sold.
the public property and services that society uses
Rebuilding the South's infrastructure was considered
One big business opportunity
What had to be rebuilt
Roads, bridges, canals, railroads, and telegraph lines had to be rebuilt
What was also needed to expand services to southern citizens
Funds. Following the North's example, all southern states created public school systems in 1872
Who paid for Reconstruction
Congress, private investors, and heavy taxes
What added another $130 million to Southern debt
Spending by Reconstruction legislatures
Why was a lot of big spending on Reconstruction lost to the White House
What did the KKK seek to do?
sought to eliminate the Republican Party in the South by intimidating voters.
They wanted to keep African Americans as a submissive laborers
What did the KKK do to victims?
Planted burning crosses on the lawns of victims and tortured, kidnapped, or murdered them
Who became victims of the KKK?
Prosperous African Americans, carpetbaggers, and scalawags became their victims
In 1870 and 1871 Congress passed a series of _______ laws
The Enforcement Act of 1870?
banned the use of terror and force to prevent people from voting
Other laws banned the KKK and used the military to...
Protect voters and voting places
As federal troops withdrew from the South what happened to black suffrage
It all but ended
4 main reasons The Reconstruction ended?
Corruption: Reconstruction legislatures and Grant's administration came to symbolize corruption, greed, and poor government
The economy: Reconstruction legislatures
taxed and spent heavily, putting the southern states deeper into debt
Violence: As federal troops withdrew from the South, some white Democrats used violence and intimidation to prevent freedmen from voting. This tactic allowed white Southerners to regain control of the state governments
The Democrat's Return to Power: The pardoned ex-Confederates combined with other white Southerners to form a new bloc of Democratic voters known as the Solid South. They blocked Reconstruction policies.
Successes of Reconstruction?
Union is restored
The South's economy grew and new wealth is created in the North
14th and 15th Amendments gave African Americans citizenship and equal protection under law and suffrage
Freedmen's Bureau and other organization help many black families obtain housing, jobs, and schooling
Southern states adopt a policy of mandatory education
Failures of Reconstruction
White southerners were bitter toward the Federal Government and Republican Party
South is slow to industrialize
After federal troops are withdrawn, southern state governments and terrorists organization effectively deny African Americans the right to vote
Many black and white southerners remain caught in the cycle of poverty
Racist attitudes continue in both the North and South
In the 1900s, the government issued almost 500,000 __________
licenses that gave an inventor the exclusive right to make, use, or sell an invention
What were power stations
They provided electricity for lamps, fans, printing presses, and many other applications
By 1900, there was _____ million telephones in uses all over the country and Western Union Telephone was sending roughly __________ messages
Edwin L. Drake
Struck oil in PA in 1859. New uses for oil grew rapidly, oil refineries sprang up around the country as oil became a big business
Inventor from NJ who experimented with electric light. Developed a workable filament for the light bulb and the idea of a central power station to make electric power widely available
Worked in Edison's lab and patented an improved method for producing filament in light
Experimented with a form of electricity called alternating current, which was less expensive and more practical than direct current, which Edison had used. By using a transformer, he improved the capabilities of power stations to make homes of electricity more powerful
When and how was the Transcontinental Railroad finished?
May 10th 1869: The transcontinental railroad extending from coast to coast, was finished with the hammering of a golden spike at Promontory Point, Utah
What did the growth of railroads lead to?
led to the development of many towns throughout the western part of the United States
When did railroads adopt time zones? Why? What was the result?
In 1883, the railroads adopted a national system of time zones to improve scheduling. As a result, the clocks in broad regions of the country showed the same time, a system we still use today
Key ways that railroads played a key role in revolutionizing business and industry in the United States
They provided a faster, more practical means of transporting goods
Lowered the cost of production
Created national markets
Provided a model for big business
Encouraged innovation in other industries
When did Henry Bessemer receive the patent for the Bessemer Process?
What did the Bessemer process do?
made steel products easier and less expensive: Bessemer process made possible the mass production, or production in great amounts, of steel
The Bessemer process created what
New age of building
one important project that was made possible by the mass production of steel?
The Brooklyn Bridge
How did the introduction of fire arms and horses affect life on the Great Plains for native American tribes?
Guns made buffalo hunting easier and horses were used for meat clothing and shelter
How did firearms and horses affect relations between Indian tribes
Warfare among Indian nations to gain possessions for conquest intensified
Nomadic native Americans raided more settled groups, rise of warriors societies led to a decline in village life
Why did the new settlers view the native American occupation of the West as a problem?
Settlers thought they could take their land to make it more productive for reminding ranching and farming
How did the US government attempt to reach a nonviolent compromise with the Native Americans? What was normally the outcome?
They created land reservations and negotiated treaties. Some arranged for federal purchase of Indian land. It produced misunderstanding and outright fraud
Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
Southern Cheyenne occupied the central Plains, including parts of Colorado territory. After Cheyenne rates on wagon trains and settlements east of Denver, Colorado's governor took advantage of a piece campaign led by Cheyenne Chief black kettle. Promised protection, black cattle and other chiefs followed orders to camp at Sandcreek. Colonel John Chivington, who had failed to score a military victory against Cheyenne, now saw his chance. His force of 700 men descended upon the encamped Cheyenne and Arapho. Black cattle tried to mount the American flag and white flag of surrender, but Chivington's men slaughtered 150 to 500 people who were mainly women and children. The next year, many southern Cheyenne agreed to move reservations
Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
Custer sent to round up the Indians. He moved his Calvary toward the little Binghorn river. There he met the Siox, nearly 200 warriors, The largest Indian force ever to gather on the plains. Custer split his forces and the Sioux wiped them out within an hour. "Custers Land Stand" stunned Americans. The army flooded the area with troops and forced most of the Sioux on their reservations. Crazy Horse was killed in 1877. Sitting bull and some of the remaining Sioux escape to Canada but starvation force them on the reservation to years later
Battle of Wounded Knee (1890)
Indian police officers tried to arrest sitting bull. He has hesitated, officers shot and killed him. His followers surrendered and were rounded up at wounded knee Creek. Soldiers opened fire and killed over 200 Sioux. Last major episode of violence in the Indian wars
What is assimilation and how did some groups attempt to use it to change Native American culture
One society becomes part of another society by taking its culture. Took children from reservations, made them give up their religious beliefs, learn different trades
What was the goal of the Dawes act and how was it received by Native Americans?
Native Americans were offended, unwilling. The act divided reservation land into individual plots, each native American family got about 160 acres and the land was bad quality
How and why did Indian territory
Government opened land for settlement in 1889 and within a year, settlers asked for territory status and created the Oklahoma Territory.
Boomers = Settlers of Indian Territory
Sooners= Came before government opened the territory
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