Terms in this set (118)
What is oil composed of?
scientists are still unsure where oil came from, the best answer is Biogenic Origin- where for millions of years dead organisms have accumulated in sediments and been transformed under heat and pressure into a waxy material called kerogen-which is the building block of crude oil
What is a Dalton
is synonymous with the unified atomic mass unit (huge molecular weight, one tenth of the mass of an unbound atom of carbon -12)
How did oil form?
dead organisms have accumulated in sediments and been transformed under heat and pressure into a waxy material called, 'kerogen', the basic building block for crude oil
When did oil form?
approximately 80-150 million years ago
What is the evidence for oils origin?
from the anaylsis of crude oil and earth sediments Botryococcus braunii has been hypothesized as important to the formation of crude oil millions of years ago. Also Tetraedron minimum is an alga that has been found as the dominant fossil in some oil shale deposits, and Diatoms-source of biofuel.
Where does oil exist on earth?
Canada, USA, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, Nigeria, Algeria, Qatar, Iraq Iran, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE Libya, Norway, Azerbaijan, India, China, Kazakhstan, Russia
How much oil does the USA use?
19.69 million barrels per day
How much oil does the USA import?
(10.1 million barrels per day)
What are the major sources of imports of oil?
What is ANWR?
Arctic National Wildlife Reserve
Why was the ANWR an issue?
Had oil that was technically recoverable, but it would be difficult to get. Did not want to have to import as much. 5.7 to 16 billion barrels of technically recoverable crude oil and natural gas liquids. The total production would be between .4 and 1.2 percent of total world oil consumption in 2030 if we began production in 2018.
How much oil is there? How long would it last at some specific rate of production?
estimates of 1,687.9 billion barrels, BP claimed the earth has enough oil left for about 53 more years at current production levels.
What is oil (tar) sand?
are a combination of clay, sand, water, and bitumen. it is used for the bitumen which is diluted to form dilbit
Where does oil sand occur?
Venezuela, USA, Russia, and Alberta
How do we get oil from oil sand?
can be extracted using steam assisted gravity drainage
a waxy material that is a precursor to crude oil and natural gas (Kerogen is a mixture of organic chemical compounds that make up a portion of the organic matter in sedimentary rocks.)
a major component of tar sands which is diluted to form dilbit. (soluble portion of kerogen in oil shale, material we know as tar or asphalt)
Diluted bitumen for transport (in the canadian petroleum industry)
Processed bitumen upgraded to synthetic crude.
Why do we make dilbit?
easier for transportation
How do we convert crude oil to redefined products?
Crude oil is separated into fractions by fractional distillation. The fractions at the top of the fractionating column have lower boiling points than the fractions at the bottom. The heavy bottom fractions are often cracked into lighter, more useful products.
What is the difference between oil from different places?
the viscosity grades, the thickness, the higher the grade the slower it moves
What are the impacts of an oil spill in the ocean? What determines the type and degree of this impact?
harms the surrounding animals. how much has spilt
other oil spills
What is peak oil?
is when the maximum rate of extraction is achieved
What is oil shale?
This is essentially oil (kerogen and other materials) that is absorbed into the crystalline structure of sedimentary rock, specifically shale.
Where is oil shale located?
Western USA- the Green River Formation in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, and Australia
How much oil is in oil shale in the USA?
1.2 to 1.8 trillion barrels
How is oil shale extracted?
burn it, add water, and let it dissolve. most expensive way to get oil so it is the least used. above-ground retorting, In-situ Conversion Process (ICP), ATP process, and in-capsule recovery.
What is the problem with oil shale?
may require more energy to extract it than is yielded as a product
What is steam assisted gravity drainage?
process uses natural gas to heat water into steam, which helps us get the oil out of the oil sands. Pulls oil up by injecting steam to heat it up-this recovers up to 60% of the oil.
What are some other methods of extracting tar(oil) sands?
Surface mining, Cold flow, Cyclic Steam Stimulation, Vapor Extraction Process (VAPEX), Toe to Heel Ait Injection (THAI)
What environmental impacts are there for tar sands?
deforestation and water usage and gives off pollutants
What is the primary source of energy for the process of getting oil out of the sands?
What are some of the doomsday predictions about running out of oil?
1914 - World oil supplies will be depleted in 10 years "US Bureau of Mines"
1939 - World oil supplies will be depleted in 13 years "Dept. of Interior"
1946 - US State Dept. - US supplies gone in 20 years, increased dependence on Middle East sources (hold this thought for Friday's documentary)
1951 -World oil supplies will be depleted in 13 years "Dept. of Interior" - no this is not a typo.
1972 - World oil supplies will be depleted in 20 years "Club of Rome" - this is a prestigious deliberative body on policy and planning
1974 - Paul Ehrlich: oil runs out in 25 years
1980's - Colin Campbell: oil will peak in 1989 (Peak oil concept)
Who did President Roosevelt meet with on the USS Quincy in 1945?
Saudi Arabia King-Abdul Aziz
What was the contrast between an absolute monarch and a fervent believer in democracy? What was the nature of the meeting?
President Roosevelt tried to persuade Saud to give support for Jewish immigration to Palestine and hoped that Ibn Saud might be able to offer constructive advice on the Palestine issue. There, Roosevelt and Saud concluded a secret agreement in which the U.S. would provide Saudi Arabia military security - military assistance, training and a military base at Dhahran in Saudi Arabia - in exchange for secure access to supplies of oil.
How much of the energy for WWII was supplied by the USA?
6 out of 7 billion barrels of oil
How much of the US reserves at that time was used as a result of the war?
more than 1/3 of total oil reserves
What Presidents after Roosevelt continued to honor that original agreement?
every president after
What was the Truman Doctrine as it relates to oil and energy?
was intended to prevent Soviet access to the flow of oil from the Middle East
What change occurred during Nixon's presidency regarding the use of proxies to conduct foreign policy?
the USA shifted foreign policy from fighting wars directly to the use of surrogate regimes
During the Nixon administration and later the Carter administration, who was our proxy in the middle east, to help protect oil supplies?
that the United States should use proxy forces to protect the oil instead of being involved
What happened and whose presidency did it happen in?
What was the Carter Doctrine?
which stated that the United States would use military force if necessary to defend its national interests in the Persian Gulf. Made oil have an active military force-rapid deployment strike force
What did President Carter create in response to the need to protect access to oil?
delivered his "Crisis of Confidence" speech urging Americans to reduce their energy use to help lessen American dependence on foreign oil
What is CENTCOM?
is a military command center that directs overseas deployments of U.S. military troops, ships, planes and more from all branches in the Middle East, North Africa, and Central Asia
Who created CENTCOM and when?
Reagan and January 1, 1983
What reasons were given initially for going to war during Desert Storm?
HUSAIN wouldnt leave kuwait
What reasons were eventually given in order to gain approval for Desert Storm?
protect oil supply
Who was President during Desert Storm?
George H. W. Bush
Who had been an ally of the US prior to to Desert Storm?
Saudi Arabia, osama bin laden
Why did he switch from being an ally to being a sworn enemy of the USA?
When the US troops stayed longer than the war lasted
What did he say was the fundamental reason for war in the middle east?
What is AFRICOM?
is one of nine unified combatant commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany.
When was AFRICOM created and by whom?
Bush in 2007
What does AFRICOM have in common with CENTCOM?
both command centers for military outside of the USA
What is EROI (EROEI)?
Energy Return on Investment
What is net energy analysis?
Net energy analysis can be applied to anything. It is the energy required for all aspects of a product or process, from raw materials to disposal.
How do the two concepts relate to each other?
THe net energy analysis is done to provide EROI
In the 1940s how did the EROI for oil compare to later years?
How does the EROI relate to payback time? Understand the EROI model diagram
should get more out of investment of energy than put in
What is the curse of oil? What different kinds of undesirable outcomes can come from sudden wealth and what factors determine whether sudden wealth from oil is a blessing or a curse? Any examples of this in countries around the world?
refers to the social and political impacts that can happen if unstable governments or societies acquire sudden wealth, in this case from oil revenue. Social, political, and economic consequences too.
People (poverish countries) who discover they have oil normally don't have a better life
-money usually doesn't go to the poverish people-lots of conflict
Has happened in Nigeria.
What is coal?
is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock composed mostly of carbon and hydrocarbons. It is the most abundant fossil fuel produced in the United States.
What are the various types of coal?
Anthracite, lignite, bituminous, and sub-bituminous
Where is coal located in our country?
Appalachian Mountains, Alabama, Texas, West, Alaska
How is coal formed and when. geologically speaking, did it form?
Before the dinosaurs, many giant plants dies in swamps. Over millions of years the plants were buried under the water and dirt. Heat and pressure turned the dead plants into coal. Plants were around 300 million years ago
How do we get it out of the ground-what are the methods of mining it?
Underground coal mining and surface mining
How do we use coal?
Coal is used to generate almost half of all electricity produced in the United States. A variety of industries use coal's heat and by-products. Separated ingredients of coal (such as methanol and ethylene) are used in making plastics, tar, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, and medicines. The concrete and paper industries also burn large amounts of coal.
What purposes besides electric power do we use coal for?
A variety of industries use coal's heat and by-products. Separated ingredients of coal (such as methanol and ethylene) are used in making plastics, tar, synthetic fibers, fertilizers, and medicines. The concrete and paper industries also burn large amounts of coal. Coal is baked in hot furnaces to make coke, which is used to smelt iron ore into iron needed for making steel
What percentage of all the coal we use is imported?
What countries do we import coal from?
What % of our coal use goes to generate electricity?
What % of all of our electricity is generated using coal?
What are the other sources of electricity?
Natural gas = 33.8%
Coal = 30.4%
Nuclear = 19.7%
Renewables (total) = 14.9%
Hydropower = 6.5%
Wind = 5.6%
Biomass = 1.5%
Solar = 0.9%
Geothermal = 0.4%
Petroleum = 0.6%
Other gases = 0.3%
Other nonrenewable sources = 0.3%
Pumped storage hydroelectricity = -0.2%
How much does the total electrical power of the United States is generated by nuclear or hydroelectric power?
How much electricity is generated by alternative sources?
What were the demands of the miners and what was the demand that was the primary source of disagreement which led to the strike?
no-strike clause, better working conditions, wages
Why was this clause so important and what did it mean to the miners?
is a provision in a collective bargaining contract in which the union promises that during the life of the contract the employees will not engage in strikes, slowdowns, or other job actions
Why was Duke Power so opposed to the clause?
Who was Carl Horn, Norman Yarborough, Lawrence Jones, and John L. Lewis?
Carl Horn-President of Duke Power Company. Norman Yarborough-head of Eastover mining company. Lawrence Jones-the man who was shot while on strike. John L. Lewis-giant of the labor movement (1920-1960 Pres of UMW)
What was the history of Harlan County and coal?
What id Bloody Harlan refer to?
strike and conflict back in the 1930s
What was the role of the United Mine Workers of America?
labor union to represent the coal miners and their needs
Who was Tony Boyle and what were the accusations against him?
UMWA president and that he had to do with killing Yablonksi
Who was Joseph Yablonski and what eventually happened?
ran against tony boyle in election in the union. Him, his wife, and daughter were all murdered.
How did this relate to the Brookside Mine strike and national energy policy?
hindered and prolonged strike
Who was Arnold Miller and what did he do?
runs against Boyle and wins-the year before the strike
What was the significance of the national coal contract and why was the federal government concerned when the contract expired? and for what reason did the miners go on strike
What is the BCOA?
Bituminous Coal Operators' Association
What federal agency stepped in to provide incentive to end the strike? why?
Secretary of the Treasury
What was the outcome for the workers at the end of the Brookside strike?
Some people ended up getting better pay and conditions, the national contract now had a no-strike clause. But other people still did not get compensated well.
How many of the demands did they get?
no-strike clause, and some people got better wages and conditions
What event precipitated the end of the strike and the agreement by Duke Power to the new contract?
increase in strip mining
How did market forces influence these decisions?
since they were paying the miners more, they had to produce and sell more.
How long are we expected to have coal at predicted rates of use?
What factors have led to the decreased production and use of coal in the last two years?
increase of natural gas and nuclear power
How do we use coal to generate electricity?
burn to produce steam
What were the major components of these power plants?
boiler, steam generator, turbines, colling tower
How does steam-or thermal electric generation work?
Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser.
How much of the energy in the coal is converted into electricity?
What happens to the rest of the energy?
put into the air
What is the difference between a cooling tower and a cooling pond?
cooling pond could have a worse effect
What do these have to do with the condenser cooling system?
How does the coal get to the power plant?
What is a unit train?
a train that has a single destination for all cargo
How is the coal processed?
What are the environmental impacts?
air pollution, acid rain
What emissions contribute to acid rain?
coal fired power plants, automobiles, industry, geothermal sources(volcanoes)
What is the effect of acid rain?
harm animals, trees, soil (wildlife), corrosion on building
How has this problem changed over the years?
worse, more pollution
What is the impact of mercury contamination?
toxic-go insane. dangerous to the nervous system
Where does this come from and how does it enter the ecosystem?
comes from industrial activity, burning coal, volcanoes, gold mining. and enters the ecosystem through production of methyl mercury by microbes during sulfate reduction
Where are most of the impaired waters in SC?
towards the bottom and left side of the state. In the ocean it is just when eating fish
What are the contaminants in coal ash?
selenium, arsenic, alteration of pH
What is the story of selenium contamination at the Belews Creek power plant?
got rid of 17 species of fish, was unsafe to consume for the fisherman
What other contaminants are associated with the combustion of coal?
coal dust left over
What factors make Trumps promise to bring the coal industry back difficult?
coal cant compete with anything, not cheap enough