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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (104)
integer
All whole numbers (both positive and negative) and zero.
sum
add
product
multiply
difference
subtraction
quotient
division
remainder
Amount left over after dividing a number
divisor
A number by which another number is divided.
factor
the resolution of an integer or polynomial into factors such that when multiplied together they give the integer or polynomial
prime number
A whole number that has exactly two factors, 1 and itself.
multiple of an integer
the product of that integer and another integer
even number
A whole number divisible by 2
odd number
Odd numbers can NOT be divided evenly into groups of two
exponent
A mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.
laws of exponents
Rules that describe relationships between exponents for certain operations.
negative exponent
an exponent less than zero which causes the base and its exponent to move positions in a fraction
fractional exponent
Exponents can be fractions too. When a number or term is raised to a fractional power, it is called taking the root of that number or term
square root of a number
A number that when multiplied by itself, equals the given number.
properties of square roots
multiplication of the roots
if the product of two or more numbers is 0, what do you know about the numbers?
one of the numbers is 0
distributive property
a property indicating a special way in which multiplication is applied to addition of two or more numbers in which each term inside a set of parentheses can be multiplied by a factor outside the parentheses, such as a(b + c) = ab + ac
properties of 0
integer, not negative, not positive, even number
properties of 1
Multiplying a number by 1 gives it that number
percent
A ratio that compares a number to 100
how do you find a percent of a number?
convert percent to a decimal and then multiply times the value
how do you calculate percent increase and percent decrease?
Total liabilities divided by total assets???
ratio
A comparison of two quantities by division (X/Y or X:Y-- numerator associate with word "to" and denominator "of"
proportion
A statement of equality of two or more ratios.
directly proportional
A term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose graph is a straight line passing through the point (0,0).
inversely proportional
A term used to describe the relationship between two variables whose product is constant.
average
the total sum of numbers ÷ the amount of numbers
weight averaged
total weight ÷ amount of people weighed
median
Middle Number
mode
Most frequently occurring number
straight angle
An angle that is 180 degrees
sum of all of the angles around a point
should equal 180???
what is true about the measures of the four angles formed by two intersecting lines?
the sum is 360 degrees??
parallel lines
lines in the same plane that never intersect
alternate interior angles
Angles that lie within a pair of lines and on opposite side of a transversal.
alternate exterior angles
Angles that lay outside the parallel lines and are on opposite sides of the transversal; They are congruent.
corresponding angles
Angles formed by a transversal cutting through 2 or more lines that are in the same relative position.
same side interior angles
two interior angles on the same side of the transversal
measures of the 3 angles in a triangle
should add up to 180
measures of the 2 acute angles in a right triangle
should add up to 90
how do you find the area of a shaded region?
length X width
how do you solve distance problems
D= √(x₁-x₂)²+(y₁+y₂)²
how do you find the distance between 2 points?
c² = a² + b²
counting principal
uses multiplication to find the number of possible ways two of more events can occur
Scalene Triangle
Recall that in a scalene triangle, all the sides have different lengths and all the interior angles have different measures
exterior angle of a triangle
An angle that forms a linear pair with an angle of the triangle
Pythagorean theorem
a²+b²=c²
properties of a 45-45-90 triangle
properties of a 30-60-90 triangle
triangle inequality theorem
The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side.
formula for the area of a triangle
A=πr²
special formula for the area of a triangle
a= 1/2 bh
similar triangles (and their properties)
Similar triangles have the same shape: corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are proportional
what is true about the altitudes, medians, angle bisectors, and perimeters of similar triangles?
Base and altitude
Every triangle has three bases (any of its sides) and three altitudes (heights). Every altitude is the perpendicular segment from a vertex to its opposite side (or the extension of the opposite side)
what is true about the areas of similar triangles?
A correlation coefficient shows the relationship between two sets of numbers.
sum of the measures of the n angles in a polygon with n sides
Theorem 5-14: The formula for the area of a regular polygon is A = 1/2ap, where a is the apothem and p is the perimeter.
exterior angle of a polygon
an angle formed by a side and an extension of an adjacent side
sum of the measures of the exterior angles in a polygon
(number of sides - 2) * 180?
properties of a parallelogram
opposite angles are congruent
properties of a rectangle
all properties of a parallelogram, all angles are right, diagonals are congruent
properties of a square
The measure of each angle is 90
formulas for the area of a parallelogram, rectangle, and a square
length x width
what is pi?
3.14
formula for the circumference of a circle
C = 2πr
how do you find the length of an arc of a circle?
how do you find the area of a sector of a circle
what is the relationship between a radius of a circle and a line that is tangent to the circle?
A tangent line is always perpendicular to the radius
formula for the volume of a rectangular solid and a cube
V=side³
the formula for the surface area of a rectangular solid and a cube
frequency x wavelength = wave speed
formula for the volume of a cylinder
V=1/3BH
how do you find the x-intercepts and the y-intercepts of a graph?
Substitute them for zero
midpoint formula
(X1 + X2)/2 and (Y1 + Y2)/2
distance formula
d = √[( x₂ - x₁)² + (y₂ - y₁)²]
slope of a line
y=mx+b
what is true about the slopes of parallel lines?
The line of reflection is the perpendicular bisector of segments
what is true about the slopes of perpendicular lines?
A correlation coefficient shows the relationship between two sets of numbers.
equation of a line
y=mx+b
how do you find the probability that an event will occur?
add up all the sides
what is the probability of an event that cannot occur?
P value?
what is the probability of an event that must occur?
?
venn diagram
A diagram that uses circles to display elements of different sets. Overlapping circles show common elements.
function
A prewritten formula that makes it easy to perform common calculations
what is the graph of a function?
a constant, straight line, unit cost is the same
if you are given the graph y=f(x), what does f(a) represent
that represents the y value when x is equal to a
what are the relationships between the graphs of y=f(x) and the graphs of y=f(x), y=f(x)-a, y=f(x+a), y=f(x-a)
it moves the graph up and down and left and right
for what values of a function is the function undefined
For the GRE, when a denominator will equal 0 or when a negative will appear under a square root.
what proportion do you use to solve percent problems?
x/100
order of operations
PEMDAS
greatest common factor
The largest factor that two or more numbers have in common.
least common factor
the smallest number that two or more numbers will divide into evenly.
arithmetic sequence
a sequence in which each term is found by adding the same number to the previous term
geometric sequence
a sequence in which each term is found by multiplying the previous term by the same number
range
Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
mean
Average
vertical angles
A pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines
equation of a circle
(x-h)²+(y-k)²=r²
sine of an angle
The ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
cosine of an angle
Adjacent/Hypotenuse
tangent of an angle
The ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to the angle.
system of equations
A set of equations with the same variables.
slope formula
(y₂- y₁) / (x₂- x₁)
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