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ARTS 2000 Test #2 Guide Multiple Choice & T/F
Terms in this set (57)
Which area is known as the Cradle of Civilizations? What were the two main rivers there? (Mesopotamian)
The area between the Tigris and the Euphrates river
Name the four major cultures of this civilization. (Mesopotamian)
Cuneiform (writing and consisted of wedge-shaped symbols). They also invented the wheel. They worshiped many gods and goddesses (polytheism)
Sculpted using bronze; Bronze Mask
relief sculptures of battles, hunting scenes, and religious rituals. Figures were meant to show the fearsome power of the Assyrian ruler and the authority given to him by the Gods. Looked like an Egyptian Sphinx
this philosophy was practiced in every aspect of human life. Focused on the individual
What is Cuneiform? (Mesopotamian)
The first writing system, developed by the Sumerians, used a pressing tool to make short and elongated marks into a clay tablet that then dried.
What is Ziggurat? (Mesopotamian)
Stepped pyramid structures (rectangular) made of baked and unbaked mud bricks in the center of communities, on which temples or shrines were built.
Ishtar Gate is an artistic example of which culture?
Animals represent goddess Ishtar- Patron goddess for the Babylonians. Comparing animals with their gods and goddesses was common in babylonian society.
What is Hieroglyphic? (Egypt)
Written language involving sacred characters that may be pictures as well as letters or signifiers of sounds. Tells stories and records history of rulers.
What were the functions of the pyramids?
Built for religious reasons, as tombs for pharaohs, for good luck and dominance and comfort in the afterlife
What is the twisted perspective or composite view? (Egypt)
they combined frontal and profile views of a person
Three main stylistic periods of sculpture (Greek)
Archaic Sculpture (Greek)
(Kouros and Korai): statues of the male youth. They normally stood upright and seemed to be a part of the living world. Kouros were the statues of males and typically nude. Korai were statues of females and only partly nude.yyyyy
Classical Sculpture (Greek)
(Contrapposto- Pose where all the figures weight is on one foot and the rest of the body is relaxed- women nude figures start appearing at the end of the classical period)
Hellenistic Sculpture (Greek)
showed figures in dramatic poses (ex. Laocoon and His Sons) Showed a greater sense of movement and heightened emotion.
What was Parthenon made out of? (Greek)
Limestone and Marble
Archaic Period (Greek)
-Bodies have no motion, not lifelike
A very lifeless smile
Classical Period (Greek)
-Started using golden ratio
-Stiffness begins to disappear
Hellenistic Period (Greek)
-A lot of motion portrayed--twists and turns
-Ex. Laocoon Group from slide ID
Classical Architectural orders (Greek)
-Doric Order (Less complex, simple column, necks at the top)
-Ionic Order (Has a base, and the capital at the top has two swirls (scrolls))
-Corinthian Order (Most complex, has a bit of a base and intricate designs at the top)
Two main vase making techniques. In which one the figures appear more three-dimensional? (Greek)
The black figure technique-
painter used watered down clay (slip) to paint the design on the pot, he then incised the details in to the slip. A three phase firing method then turned the slip covered areas black while the rest of the pot remained the original red color. Amphora carried wine and olive oil, narrow neck
The red figure technique- (more 3D)
used the reverse process to black figure: the slip was used to outline the figures and paint in the details. This method makes the figures appear slightly more three dimensional. Calyx-Crater mixed wine and water, broader more open neck
What is Contapposto?(Greek)
when a figure is depicted slouching or placing one's weight and thus center of gravity to one side.
Who was the Pantheon dedicated to? Special Features? (Roman)
All gods and goddesses. They adopted the greek way of making columns, and modified it to make corinthian columns.
Special features included coffers in which the sculptures of gods and goddesses stood, as well as the oculus which is the "eye" in the ceiling letting in natural light. Both coffers and the Oculus were ways to psychologically open up space. Dome roof.
What is the main difference between the Greek and the late Roman marble figures/portraits? (Roman)
What is the name of the Roman city center? (Roman)
What did they build to glorify their leaders that were usually built after winning wars? (Roman)
How was Byzantium or Constantinople important? (Middle ages)
How was Byzantium or Constantinople important?
Emperor Constantine moved the Roman Empire to Constantinople and the city was called Byzantium, center of the Roman Empire.
It was a major trade route, centrally located between three continents. Where the Eastern Roman Empire was located in the middle ages as the Western Roman Empire began to lose power.
What is a continuous narrative? Give an example. (Middle ages)
What is a continuous narrative? Give an example.
A continuous narrative is an artwork in which different points in time in the story are shown within the same scene
Ex. is Exodus and the Crossing of the Red sea, Synagogue at Dura Europos, 3rd century CE, Fresco
What is a catacomb? (Middle ages)
A place of burial- an underground cemetery- often contained continuous narratives and belongings of whoever was buried there. Painted on walls and ceilings
How did the Second Commandment influence the destruction of images? (Middle ages)
Thou shalt not worship idols. Some took that icons might inspire too much worship of the person and not God, leading to the destruction of a ton of images. This shows the power that art can have and the fear that it can generate.
Byzantine Icon, Iconoclasm, iconoclasts (Middle ages)
believed people were worshiping the icons of Mary and Jesus and not them directly
Christian Manuscripts (Middle ages)
The beautiful pages are called- illuminations cause their rich colors recall light shining through the stained glass in the cathedral- focuses on life of Jesus and biblical stories
Islamic Manuscripts (Middle ages)
focused on the life of Muhammad *rarely show human figures, never images of Allah, focus on words and elegant script
Rib Vaults (Middle Ages)
Rib Vaults: make the great height of the cathedrals possible; the weight of the structure is spread through the ribs of the ceiling or roof, with a web of protruding stone work.
Flying buttress(Middle ages)
an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers some of the weight of the vault.
Rose Window (Middle ages)
a stained glass window that allows light to enter and also reflects different colors. Gothic
What is the Renaissance? (Southern Renaissance)
Rebirth of Greek and Roman ideals in the 15th century. Led to churches being built. They were decorated on the outside and inside. Rebirth of the Classics: humanistic revival of classical art, philosophy, and learning
What is the humanist philosophy of the Renaissance? (Southern Renaissance)
It is a philosophical approach to life that stressed people's intellectual and physical potential to achieve personal success and contribute to the betterment of society. At an individual level, each person is important to the development as a civilized society.
Who were the art patrons in the South? How did they affect art making of the time? (Southern Renaissance)
Who were the art patrons in the South? How did they affect art making of the time?
Patrons are the people who hired the artist to do a desired piece of art. Only the super wealthy could afford to pay artists, and the majority of paintings commissioned were religious paintings. The paintings that were not religious were of the rich people themselves. The catholic church themselves were often Patrons.
How did the art patrons of the south affect art making at this time? (Southern Renaissance)
determined such things as the size, subject matter, and even how much of an expensive pigment, such as ultramarine blue, the artist could use.
Early Renaissance (Southern Renaissance)
Renaissance artists used and refined new systems of perspective to translate their careful observations more consistently to realistic artistic representations.
These influences inspired Renaissance artists to combine existing subject matter and techniques with innovative approaches.
Linear Perspective created by Brunelleschi
High Renaissance (Southern Renaissance)
Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo Buonarroti, and Raphael dominated the art world at this time period.
All three used the rules of perspective and illusionism, but willingly departed from exact mechanical precision in order to create desired visual effects.
Leonardo Da Vinci invented a painting technique called Sfumato- which consisted of applying a hazy or misty glaze over the painting to create blended areas rather than harsh outlines.
Late Renaissance (Southern Renaissance)
Many artworks stress dissonance: a lack of harmony- disproportionate- elongated figures
When Mannerist style was developed.
What are the characteristics of the Mannerist style? What are the possible reasons for this artistic development? (Southern Renaissance)
-Mannerism: from Italian di maniera, meaning charm, grace, playfulness, usually with elongated human figures elevating grace as ideal
-Dissonance- distortion and disproportion
-the disorder of the period (exchange of powers) was reflected in the artwork.
-Distorted figures shows discomfort and turmoil after the Sack of Rome
Who was credited with developing linear perspective? (Southern Renaissance)
Brunelleschi is credited for creating linear perspective, making the illusion of three dimensional space in the Early Renaissance
How many different ways Leonardo made the Christ the central figure in his painting "Last Supper"? What superstition or cultural practice is wisely inserted into this painting to represent bad luck? (Southern Renaissance)
Emphasizes Christ as the most important figure in four ways:
• Christ is depicted at the center
• He is shown as a stable triangular form, in contrast with the agitated activity of other figures
• Third, his head is framed by the natural light of the middle of the three windows behind him.
• Finally, Leonardo arranged the linear perspective of his painting so that the vanishing point is right behind Christ's head.
• Judas knocking over the salt is a superstition inserted to represent bad luck.
Who commissioned Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel Fresco?(Southern Renaissance)
Pope Julius II the Second of the Catholic Church
Among many classical scholars, which four figures in Raphael's "School of Athens"
(that I mentioned in class)? (Southern Renaissance)
Aristotle, Plato, Socrates, Diogenes
In Jan van Eyck's "Arnolfini Portriat" we talked about many objects that were used as symbols -- What do the fruit, dog, pair of shoes, prayer beads and the "passion" images in the mirror, man by the window and pregnant woman by the bed may refer to? What kind of analysis that would be? (Northern Renaissance)
The fruit: wealthy and mortality
Dog: loyalty, Fertility(fidelity and wealth?) ← sure according to wiki
Pair of shoes: Sacred Marriage shoes
Prayer Beads and Rondelles: Piety, discrete images that show the couple is religious.
The position of the figures: The role of genders in that time, men in the outside world and women with domestic duties and childbirth.
The artist's statement of "Jan van Eyck was here in 1434" at the back wall may remind one of what kind of stylistic technique in art? (Northern Renaissance)
The technique of Glazing- which Van Eyck developed with such virtuosity, was widely adopted through europe after 1450
What could be the possible reasons of the stylistic development of Mannerism? (Mannerism)
Mannerism was developed because after the Renaissance, everything in the art world had been achieved, there was a need for something different
a technique created by Carvaggio that makes the scene seem like it's emerging into the light from a darkened background with an effect similar to a modern spotlight. Ex. Judith decapitating Holofernes- It looks like a strong beam of light seems to stop right where judith's knife slices through the general's neck.
What are the main differences between the Southern and Northern Renaissance?
Southern - religious, tempera, fresco, mythological
Northern - not necessarily religious, oil, focused more on the individual
Renaissance vs Mannerism vs Baroque
Renaissance: Classical, Religious, Emotionless
Mannerism: Discomfort, Elongation, Distortion
Baroque: Heightened Emotion, Lighting, Tension,
Describe several similarities and differences between Donatello's, Michelangelo's and Bernini's "David."
All are sculptures of David. All are free standing.
-after the killing of Goliath.
-before the killing of Goliath.
-during the killing of Goliath.
-supported on one leg.
-was made in the Baroque period so it has heightened emotion and expression in the face
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