Terms in this set (78)
When an activity raises threats of harm to the environment or human health, precautionary measures should be taken even if some cause and effect relationships are not fully established scientifically
This legal precept originated in German law . . . the precautionary principle asks for restraint on human activities that could harm the environment when there is not enough evidence to determine for sure whether such harm will occur.
Used because it is cheaper to make than olive oil and is perceived to have health benefits
After a study it was found there was no relationship with slowing memory loss through canola oil
Canola Oil video "Avoid Canola oil, for the health of it!
Canola Oil Effects on the Brain
Canola oil is really not good for us. Canola oil has been shown to negatively physical and mental health-precautionary principle. Linked to Alzheimer's.
"A Planetary Ethics"
Planetary Ethics: The Precautionary Principle from German law states how people need to restrain from certain activities if its impact on the environment isn't clear. American environmental policy states how it is fine until proven otherwise.
Interview with Garrett Hardin
Believes nations need to be able to take care of their people, if they say they can't "go back and try again" don't have nations become parasitic
If others can come up to U.S. standard of living is wrong questions, first is U.S. will have to decrease standard of living and others might be able to raise it
Two or three cars unnecessary - partially because cities are poorly made
Tragedy of the commons, what he meant was to call attention to the dividing of resources by human - it is the wrong nature to have, should be dealt by the work he has done - then people will work towards it
"A finite world can only support a finite population; therefore population growth must eventually equal zero"
He warned of the dangers of overpopulation
Joshua D. Green video
Speaks about The Tragedy of the Commons
How to deal with cooperation
Different tribes with different herds
One says enough of commons and privatizes and everyone gets their own land
Another way, communist tribe
-Common pasture and common herd
What if someone goes after your herd? Do you go after them or let them be?
A lot of different terms of cooperation
There's big forest fire and the rains come and suddenly theres a new big pasture in the middle, they all move in
-So now how do they live on this land as they all lived differently
-that new pasture is the modern world
Hardin's First law of ecology
"You cannot only do one thing" Expresses the interconnectedness of every action
Start with a pond contain 15 fish
Five person are catching fish from the pond
The fisherwomen/fishermen do not know how many fish are in the pond (and they never know)
Each fisherman can catch 1 to 3 fish per round
1 fish is needed to survive
2 fish makes for a nice, comfortable life
3 fish low a person to be really ell off - that is "rich"
After each round of fishing, the remaining fish "multiply" by doubling in number
What are the possible scenarios?
Resources that are needed by all but whose productivity is diffuse rather than concentrated, low or unpredictable in yield, and low in unit value tend to be kept as communal property with relatively equal, although not unrestricted, access by group members. Smaller, easier divisible, and more highly productive areas may be owned and inherited by individuals
Zero Population Growth
balance where the number of people in a specified population neither grows nor declines
Population is increasing... What to do?
Hardin: Appeals to conscience won't work
-'Welfare state' prevents selection against many offspring
"A finite world can support only a finite population; therefore, population growth must eventually equal zero."
Tragedy of the commons
Concept: a shared resource in which any given user reaps the full benefit of his/her personal use, while the losses are distributed amongst all users. Result? Tragedy all around
The commons (a.k.a Common Pool Resources, CPRs)
What other examples of CPRs?
-Freshwater rivers, ponds, lakes
-Oceans and ocean resources
-federal and state owned land
Commons | Market
• Long-term Perspective
• Intergenerational Equity
• Sustainability Orientation
• Collective Good
• Short-term Orientation
• Shareholder returns
• Growth Orientation
• Private Interests
A regulation accepted by the majority of those affected and imposed upon all involved
• Speed limits
• Income Taxes
• Clean Air Act
-Took more than 90,000 years to reach 5 million people
-Took 10,000 years to reach 1 billion
-Took 200 years to reach 6 billion
Population is stable for about 10 years
Human Population (2)
• Habitat destruction a direct result of human population increases
• Agriculture, cities, technological advances, industry/pollution all result in destruction of "natural" habitat, but reason our carrying capacity increases
A J-shaped curve: exponential growth
Why exponential growth?
-Agriculture: food not limiting
-Technology: advances increase K
Reduces death rate
Increase survival rate
• At a 1.2% global growth rate, the population will double in 58 years
Population Density and Distribution
-Increased density impacts the environment, but relieves pressure in less-populated areas
-Humans are unevenly distributed around the globe
-Unpopulated areas tend to be...
South vs. the north
Future World populations video
11)Mexico-gaining people at a steady rate
3)Nigeria-society straining 257 million people
2)China-not #1 because it slowed down birth rate 1.384
1)India 1.620 billion
Is population growth really a problem?
• People can find or manufacture additional resources to keep pace with growing population growth
• Not all resources can be replaced
• Even if they could, quality of life suffers
4 Stages of Demographic Transition
-Birth rate and death rate are high
-Death rate declines due to increased food production and improved medical care
-Birth rate declines due to increased opportunities for women and access to birth control
-Birth rate and death rate are low
Get chart off power point
--In this model, population growth is seen as temporary phenomenon as societies industrialize.
Look at Raccoon Picture and dear
Why do we see so much wildlife now? We are encroaching on their territory
Unprovoked white shark attacks
They have gone up in time, not really unprovoked? Yes, somewhat
(Drop in fatalities because of emergency services)
Alligator attacks in Florida are also on the rise
Human Encroachment on Wilderness
Draining of Wetlands
Human Settlement Closer to Nature
Amazon: approximately 17% of forest lost in the last 50 years (mainly for cattle)
"Any emerging disease in the last 30 or 40 years has come about as a result of encroachment into wild lands and changes in demography"
Animal Virus with high host plasticity
Animal-to-human spilover of viruses
Amplification by human-to-human transmission
Talking about Mosquitoes and deforestation
We conclude that deforestation and associated ecologic alterations are conducive to A. darling larval presence, and thereby increase malaria risk
Mosquitoes thrive on the mix of sunlight and water in newly deforested areas
Malaria two regions graph picture
This study indicates that a deforestation of about 4% results in an increase in malaria of 50%
Climate change and malaria
Upload maps and look at where it has been found
Transmitted to people by mosquitoes
The most common symptoms are fever and joint pain
Outbreaks have occurred in countries in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Indian and Pacific Oceans
Found for the first time in 2013 in the Americas on Caribbean islands
There is a risk of being imported to new areas because of travelers
There is no vaccine to the virus but travelers can protect themselves by not getting bit by mosquitoes
1918 Influenza: The Mother of All Pandemics
One third of populations (roughly 500 million) were infected and had clinically apparent illnesses. Casualty rate was at >2.5%
Paper called the mother of all pandemics because lots of strains were caused by this strain of flu
Came in three major waves
Killed off people that should've been in their prime (people our age)
Pathogenic responses among young adults
Carried by bats
HENDRA and EBOLA
Should schools be cancelled over things like this? How about Churches?
Hendra Virus (HeV) Infection
Identified in suburb of Brisbane in 1994, killed horses and was spread by bat. Involved 21 horse cases and two human cases
Symptoms range from mid-influenza like illness to fatal respiratory or neurological disease
Ebola Virus Disease
Ebola haemorrhagic fever
Has a fatality rate of 50%
Thought to have come from fruit bats
Is transmitted to humans from wild animals and from human to human interaction (break in the skin or mucous membrane)
Burial ceremonies that involve direct contact with the body of the deceased can contribute in the transmission of Ebola
Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks
Needs case management, infection protection and control practices
Created strong wheat that could be produced successfully in India
Issues to consider
Standard of living / quality of life
Sustainability? Or are we eating into our capital and degrading the planet?
Even if we can sustain more, is more necessarily better
We are meant to live in small groups
Wants only 2 billion people
Cell phone Radiation
Look at cell - Use speaker phone
Created schwannoma cancer in hearts in rats
Issues to Consider
1) Standard of living / quality of life
2) Sustainability? Or are we eating into our capital and degrading the planet?
3) Even if we can sustain "more", is "more" necessarily "better"?
Unconscious cerebral initiative and the role of conscious will in voluntary actions
Idea that you use what you have now (infrastructure, world view) and you change it a little bit every time to fit the way you need
Once you design something its hard to change it
Do we have free will? How much can we actually change?
Some scientist says we only have a little bit of freewill
Veto against an instinct
LOOK AT VARIOUS CURVES
Some People Fear Falling Populations
Population growth is correlated with poverty, not wealth
Policymakers believe growth increases economic, political, and military strength
-They offer incentives for more children
-67% of European nations think their birth rates are too low
-In non-European nations, 49% feel their birth rates are too high
Population Growth Affects the Environment
The IPAT model: I=P x A x T
-Our total impact (I) on the environment results from the interaction of population (P), affluence (A), and technology (T).
-Population: individuals need space and resources and produce waste
-Affluence: per capita resource use
-Technology: allows increased exploitation of resources
- But can also reduce our impact (e.g., decrease emission)
Individuals need space and resources and produce waste
Per capita resource use
Allows increased exploitation of resources
- But can also reduce our impact (e.g. decrease emissions)
All population principles apply to humans
-Environmental factors limit population growth
-The environment has a carrying capacity for humans
-Humans can raise the environment's carrying capacity through technology
-How many humans can the earth sustain 1-33 billion
-Population growth can't continue forever
Whether a population grows, shrinks, or remains stable depends on:
• Rates of birth, death, and migration • Birth and immigration add individuals.
• Death and emigration remove individuals.
Technological advances led to dramatic declines in human death rates
Widening the gap between birth rates and death rates resulting in population expansion
Growth Rates are decreasing, but...
Falling growth rates do not mean a decreasing population, but only that rates of increase are slowing
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
The average number of children born per female
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
• Access to Medical Care
• Children attend school and impose economic costs
TFR that keeps the size of a population stable
• For humans, fertility replacement = 2.1
Factors Affecting Total Fertility Rate
• With Social Security, elderly parents need fewer children to support them
• Greater education allows women to enter the labor force, with less emphasis on child rearing
Worldwide, Total Fertility Varies Widely
• Every European nation now has TFR<replacement
• Natural Rate of population change: due to birth and death rates alone
• In countries with good sanitation, health care and food, people live longer (they have a higher life expectancy)
4 stages of Demographic Transition
Empowering Women Reduces Growth Rates
• Fertility rates drop when women gain access to contraceptives, family planning programs, and better educational opportunities
• In 2007, 54% of married women used contraception
• China = 86%; the U.S. = 68%; 20 African nations<10%
A model of economic and cultural change to explain the declining death and birth rates in industrialized nations
• Stable pre-industrial state of high birth and death rates changes due to a stable post-industrial state of low birth and death rates
• Industrialization causes these changes
• As mortality decreases, there is less need for large families, and parents invest in quality of life
• Because of high birth rates and low death rates, population growth occurs
Demographic transition model
Stage one of Demographic transition model
Period Prior to economic development
• Population are limited by low food availability
• Death rates are high
• Birth rates are high
Over long periods of time birth rate = death rate
Zero population growth
Note: fluctuations can occur in population growth, but overall zero population growth over long periods of time
Stage two of Demographic Transition model
• Improved economic conditions
• More food, better living conditions, health care and education
• Death rates decrease
• Birth rate stays high
Poorer countries; e.g. Nigeria and Afghanistan
Stage three of Demographic Transition model
• Continued economic development
• Social and cultural changes lead to lower birth rates
• Death rate remains low
• Birth rate decreases
Population growth slows
Many of world's countries today, including U.S.
Stage four of Demographic Transition model
• Low birth rate
• Low death rate
Birth rate = death rate
Decline in population may occur
Japan, some western countries
Is the Demographic Transition Universal?
• It has occurred in Europe, U.S., Canada, Japan, and other nations over the past 200-300 years.
• But it may or may not apply to all developing nations.
• The transition could fail in cultures...
• That place greater value on childbirth or
• That grant women fewer freedoms
• Where lack of knowledge of contraceptive methods is high or suspect
• Where poverty is rampant and not declining
For people to attain the material standard of living of North Americans, we would need the natural resources of four and a half more Earths.
Why is DT Stalled? Why?
• In 18 of the 22 countries, knowledge of at least one method of contraception is high (90%)
• But in Niger & Nigeria only 66% of married women are knowledgeable
• In Chad, only 49% know of contraception but only 2% use it
• Cultural preference for large family size
• Fear of health effects of contraception
Carrying Capacity of Earth
Over Population: China
• 1949: Mao encourages high birth rate
- Initial High Fertility Period(1949-1957): Average 6 children
- Great Leap Forward (1958-1961): Average 3.3 children (due to high death rate, famine)
- Post-Famine Recovery (1962 to 1971): 7.4
- Rapid Fertility Decline (1971-1979): 2.8 children (replacement rate)
- One Child Policy (1979): (negative pop. growth)
• Although Birth rates below replacement levels, Population still increasing, Why?
Time lag: Until low birth rate cohort reaches reproductive age.
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