The Colonies Come of Age
Terms in this set (28)
economic strategy, Countries in competition to acquire as much gold and silver as possible. Ultimate goal for a country to become self sufficient
Navigation Acts (1651)
No country could trade with the colonies unless there goods were shipped in colonial or English Ships
All ships needed to be operated by crews that were at least three quarters English or colonial
Colonies could only export certain products to England
All goods traded between colonies and Europe had to pass through an English port
List positive and negative aspects of the Navigation Acts for English & Colonists
English Pros: got certain goods from the new world that they did not have
Making a lot of money, less competition, protected England's colony. Jobs for their people, imported taxes for English treasury.
Colonists: +Colonial shipbuilding expanded. -Had to trade certain goods illegally, because there was no market in England for certain colonial exports. Limited trade options.
King James II
1685 -comes to power and seeks more control
Place colonies from Maine to NJ under one ruler
Sir Edmund Andros
Ruled the dominion of New England
Andros was a military officer and wanted strict control over colonists
Angered Puritans by questioning their religion
Enforced Navigation acts and punished smugglers
Restricted local assemblies and raised taxes
William and Mary
King james is thrown out of power and William and Mary started the glorious revolution
After Glorious Revolution
Supported a Policy of Salutary Neglect
England relaxed enforcement of most regulations in return for economic loyalty of colonies
Successful because colonists were still loyal to England
What is the economy of the south based on?
The south is mostly based on tobacco, cotton-cash crops.
resource that is grown in order to make money instead of personal use
Why did labor sources decline?
Declines, because once the servants got their freedom they had no money
Natives- Failed, because they can escape because they know the land better than the settlers
Why were African Americans seen as a better source of labor?
Believed to be better fit for working in harsh climate and farming
Slaves are for life- Better investment
Dark skin was a sign of inferiority
Trans atlantic trading network during 17th century
3 way trading process of goods, resources and people
Network between the Northern and Southern colonies, West indies, Europe, and Africa.
Middle passage between Africa and north america
What was slavery like in the South?
80-90 percent of slaves worked in the fields
Plantations: worked under their owner & field bosses
Small farms: worked along their owner
10-20 percent of slaves worked in house of their owner or as artisans
Domestic slaves cooked, cleaned, raised children
Treated equally as cruel as field workers
Slaves that learned skills were often rented out to other plantations
Africans came from a variety of different cultures and spoke different languages
Forced into labor, Africans bonded together for support
How did these Africans cope with their enslavement?
Sing, prayed, religion, and traditions
Wove baskets and molded pottery
Retold stories from their ancestors
Shared musical traditions
Kept alive their customs of dance
Ring shout: circular religious dance
Paid tribute to the ancestors and gods
What major changes took place in the colonies as a result of the Great Awakening?
People from all background began to go to Christian churches for the first time.
Colleges are founded at the time, because everyone wanted to be educated to read and practice their religion. Columbia and Dartmouth
Challenged church authority
Baptist and the Methodists gained new members
How did the Great Awakening lay the foundations for the Revolutionary War and the Constitution?
1. Government is illegal unless it comes from the consent of the governed
2. Unified the population united the 13 colonies
3. Ideas of equality
4. Idea of self government and the individual
How did farms in the North differ from colonies in the South?
Farms in the North produced several crops instead of a single crop like the south.
Cold winters and rocky soil restricted the North to small farms.
Which industries developed in the North?
Grinding wheat, harvesting fish, and sawing lumber became thriving industries. Colonists also manufactured impressive numbers of ships and quantities of iron.
Who became one of the most powerful groups in the North?
Why did major cities develop in the North and not the South? What were some of the major cities?
The expansion in trade caused port cities to grow. Only one major port, Charles Town, existed in the South. In contrast, the North boasted Boston, New York City, and Philadelphia.
began in September in 1739. About 20 slaves gathered at the Stono river southwest of Charles town. With guns and other weapons, the killed several planter families and marched south, beating drums and loudly inviting other slaves to join to flee to Spanish-held Florida. White militia had surrounded the group of escaping slaves, the two sides fought and and many slaves were killed. The slaves that were captured were executed.
What were the Navigation Acts?
It was intended to promote and protect English industry and commerce against foreign competition.
Governments regulate economic activities by increasing exports and limiting foreign imports in an effort to generate wealth. Restriction on foreign trade.
Name some items "enumerated" by the acts as being exported from the colonies only to England.
Tobacco , rice, sugar, cotton, ginger, and indigo that the colonist could export only to England.
Name three examples of exports the colonists had to trade with other countries illegally because England produced its own.
Because there was no market in England for certain colonial exports, such as wheat, flour, meat, and fish, since the country produced its own, the colonists were forced to trade illegally.
In what industry did the colonists prosper due to the navigation acts? Why?
Colonists in the shipbuilding industry prospered because all vessels were to be British-made.
In addition to increasing England's wealth, how was the mercantile system advantageous for the colonies?
The laws also provided them with a convenient market for their raw materials they produced.
When were the Navigation Acts repealed?
What did customs officials do to supplement their incomes?
Why did Britain levy heavier taxes on the colonies in 1764?
During the french and indian war, Parliament was forced to seek increased revenues to pay the costs of defending the Americans.