What is life? A Guide to Biology: Chapter 4

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Terms in this set (...)

Energy
The Capacity to do work: moving matter against an opposing force
Potential Energy
Molecules in area of high concentration; Chemical Energy
Energy is..?
Never created or destroyed; it only changes from one form to another
Structure of ATP?
Adenine, Ribose, Phosphate Group
How to Make ATP?
ADP+ Phosphate Group+ Energy =ATP
3 inputs of photosynthesis
Carbon Dioxide, Sunlight, and Water
2 Outputs of photosynthesis
Oxygen, Sugar
Pigments
Molecules that absorb light energy
Chlorophyll
-Absorb violet, blue & red
-Reflect green
Is a pigment
Inputs and Outputs of "photo" or light-reactions
Occurs in thylakoids and in chlorophyll
Inputs:
-Sunlight
-Water
Outputs:
-ATP
-NADPH
-Oxygen
Inputs and Outputs of "synthesis"
Occurs in the Stroma
Inputs:
-ATP
-NADPH
-Carbon Dioxide
Outputs:
-Sugar or ATP
Cellular Respiration
Converts the energy in chemical bonds to ATP. All Eukaryotes (including plants) use cellular respiration
2 inputs of Cellular Respiration
-Oxygen
-Sugar (Glucose)
3 outputs of cellular respiration
-Carbon Dioxide
-Water
-Energy
Four Steps of Cellular Respiration
-Glycolysis
-Acetyl-CoA Production
-Krebs Cycle
-Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis
Breakdown of glucose into two pyruvate molecules; Uses 2 ATP and Produces 4 ATP and 2 NADPH
Not very efficient (~2% of energy transferred to ATP)
•Done by all living things
•Reactions in cytoplasm (liquid of cell) not in an organelle
•10 enzymes
•No Oxygen required
Acetyl-CoA Production
Converts pyruvate to acetyl-CoA; Produces NADH and CO2
Occurs in mitochondria
-Acetyl
-CoA will enter Citric Acid Cycle
-Makes ⅓ of CO2
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
-Occurs in inner compartment of mitochondria (matrix)
-Rips Acetyl-CoA apart
-Makes 2 ATPs & ⅔ of CO2
-Releases high energy e-
Electron Transport Chain
Occurs in inner membrane of mitochondria
-High energy e- from steps 1 & 3 pass through membrane proteins
-Energy used to make loads of ATP
-Final step e- dumped onto O2→ H2O
Produces 30-34 ATP
Fermentation
Occurs in the absence of oxygen
When light strikes an object it is:
1.Reflected - bounces off
2.Transmitted - passes through
3.Absorbed - excites electrons
Carotenoids
-Absorb blue & green
-Reflect yellow, orange, red
Phycocyanins
-Absorb green & yellow
-Reflect blue, purple
Photosynthesis
Transfers light energy (kinetic) to glucose (potential energy)
•All occurs in chloroplasts
•Captures less than 1% of total solar energy reaching earth
Light Dependent Reactions
•ADP to ATP using light energy •Occurs in inner membrane of chloroplast
•Water split into oxygen & H+
Light Independent Reactions
•Uses ATP, CO2 & H+ to make glucose
•Can occur in dark if raw material supplied
1st Law of Thermodynamics
-Energy cannot be created or destroyed but may change form
2nd Law of Thermodynamics
-Energy automatically converts to less organized forms (like heat)
Exergonic reactions
endergonic reactions may also be called an unfavorable reaction or nonspontaneous reaction. The reaction requires more energy than you get from it.
Endergonic Reactions
An exergonic reaction may be called a spontaneous reaction or a favorable reaction.
Exergonic reactions release energy to the surroundings.9