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Ethics Exam 2
Terms in this set (31)
What is power, according to Hobbes?
The ability and means to obtain and secure some good for ones self
According to Hobbes, what is the ultimate goal of human life, and how does this view compare with that of Aristotle?
The ultimate goal of human life is to secure enough power to assure that he keeps his power and means to live well.
Aristotles Ultimate Goal — Human Happiness
What does Hobbes mean by saying that all humans are equal, and how does he support his claim?
Any one is capable of killing anyone else; Taking away their life, which is their most important possession.
What does Hobbes believe to be the consequences of the human condition of equality?
The human condition of equality causes competition to arise between people when they both desire the same thing because they both feel that they deserve it.
Competition, Distrust, and Glory
In Hobbes' view, what are the laws of nature, and are the qualities** of his conception of the laws of nature?
The laws of nature are that man should
1). seek peace and follow it
2). protect his life and that
3). we must give up our power to one person for the sake of self-preservation.
Morality arises out of the laws of nature and is discovered by reason
What is a contract, in Hobbes' view, and what role do contracts play in his view of human existence?
A contract is the mutual transferring of right.
Role: They give man a way to escape the natural state of war.
What, according to Hume, is the relation between reason and the Will?
Reason provides information that can help direct Will
"All that Will can do is help us manage our emotions"
"Reason doesn't launch us into action"
Reason provides information, in particular about means to our ends:
And this information can change the direction of the Will.
What argument does Hume give to support his claim that reason is not capable of guiding action?
"Reason is the slave of passion"
Reason pursues knowledge in order to achieve passions' goals.
Reason alone cannot move us to action; the impulse to act itself must come from passion.
passion provides that motive, but reason only tells us what is true or false, not what is good or bad.
What arguments does Hume give to support his claim that morality is not discovered by reason?
since moral decisions affect actions, while decisions of reason do not, morality must not be based on reason.
reason helps us arrive at judgments, but our own desires motivate us to act on or ignore those judgments.
Reason brings us to Moral judgements which are essential to the deliverance of emotions, which make us act.
so therefore reason cannot bring us to morality
Hume has considerable discussion of incest. How is this related to his claims about morality?
The evil of incest does not rest merely on the physical relations between the two parties
It rests, instead, in the mans attitude morality
The only reason why we think incest is bad is because of our attitude towards it.
1 Human and Animal incest are the same thing,
2 Animal incest is not naturally evil;
3 But human incest is evil (immoral).
4 Only because of our attitude
Hume argues that moral conduct is entirely the result of the sentiments (or emotions). What reasons does he give to support this claim?
1). Actions and motivation (Morality) manifest from the prospect of pain or pleasure
2). Pain and Pleasure are emotions,
3). Therefor, Morality comes from emotions.
Pain & pleasure provide our motivation to act.
What is the "good Will" for Kant, and why does he think it is the highest good?
Will — "The faculty of acting accordingly to a conception of a law."
Good Will — Is a Will that leads to acting in a way that is good
The "Good Will" is the only thing that is unconditionally good, Morality is, for Kant, the sole unconditional, highest good, for human beings,
It is the possession of a rationally guided Will that breeds morality.
the highest and unconditional good can be found only in such a Will. And as result in morality.
What reasons does Kant give for believing that the life of reason cannot bring happiness?
"A rational being trying to determine surely and universally what actions will lead to happiness is impossible to determine."
Seeking happiness (through reason) Does not bring happiness
EX: A man thinks riches will make him happy only to find that this pursuit of being rich makes him unhappy as a result of envy and anxiety that come with it.
What conditions, according to Kant, must be satisfied for an action to have moral worth?
For Actions to have Moral Worth they must: Be motivated by Duty
"We are Completely Free (Free will) and Completely Bound to do Our Duty (to act in accordance to the moral law)"
What is "duty" for Kant, and what role does it play in his moral philosophy?
Duty" Means acting in accordance with the law.
Good Will towards a Law (DUTY) = Morality
How, according to Kant, can we determine what our duty is in any given situation?
Determining Duty is a result of REASON rather than a desire for expected consequence or emotional feeling.
How does Kant's method for deciding how we should act compare with that of Aristotle and that of Hobbes?
Kant — Kant claims that reason decides that the DUTY we are morally obligated to do.
It is is motivated by morality.
and brought up through Good Will
We Act in such a way that promotes adherence to a universal moral law.
Hobbes — When deciding how to act in a particular situation, humans must "deliberate" by weighing Attractive and Repellent options.
Aristotle — Act in a way so to promote virtue. Actions must be done in moderation
T/F Hume claims we must use reason to discover our duty
According to Hume, the relationship between reason and passion is...
A: Reason is dominated by passions
T/F Hume argues that our moral judgements are based on our attitudes
What is in agreement with Kant's view with the relationship between reason and will
Will should be guided by reason
T/F Hume argues that our moral judgements are based on our attitudes
Suppose that people always acted only after using reason to discover the truth,
Would Hume's view of human nature would be weakened?
Human Beings are generally inclined to help one another
Suppose that SG says why do we need to use reason to discover our Duty, who can we not use intuition? it would be much simpler and easier. How would Kant respond to this..
Hobbs conception of human happiness
Is based on satisfying desires
T/F Kant claims we could all be happy if we could simply make better use of our reason
T/F Hobbes argues that only intelligent people can be happy
Hobbes argument about why human have to seek peace. Why cant humans just be nice to one another?
A: Everyone is equal through killing and naturally warlike, Humans cannot be nice to one another
Hume is convinced of which one of the following
A: Humans have sympathy towards one another HUME = SYMPATHY
Hobbes claims that humans are equal through competition
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