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Particle Model of Matter
Terms in this set (46)
What is density?
A measure of how compact a substance is
What is the formula for density?
Density = Mass÷Volume
What does density depend on?
What an object is made of and how it's particles are arranged
What is a dense material?
The particles are packed tightly together
What is a less dense material?
The particles are more spread out
What would happen if you compressed a material?
It would become more dense as it's particles would move closer together. It's mass would not change however its volume would decrease
What are the three states of matter?
-Gas- water vapour
The particles of the substance are the same however they are arranged differently
Describe a solid's particles
-strong forces of attraction hold the particles close together
-fixed and regular pattern
-don't have much energy so they can only vibrate about a fixed position
-highest density as particles are closest together
Describe a liquid's particles
-weaker forces of attraction between the particles
-particles are close together but can move past each other and form irregular arrangements
-more energy than solids
-they fill the container they are in
-move at random at low speeds
-less dense than solids
Describe a gas's particles
-almost no forces of attraction between the particles
-free to move at random at high speeds
How can you measure the density of a solid block?
scales ÷ volume (wxlxd)
How can you measure the density of a liquid?
scales ÷ volume (measuring cylinder)
How can you measure the density of a rock?
scales ÷ volume (water displacement in a eureka can)
What resolution should you use up to 1m?
What resolution should you use up to 10cm?
What resolution should you use up to 3cm?
What does uncertainty mean?
How sure we are of our result
How can you calculate an uncertainty?
range of results ÷ 2
If the mean was 71cm and the uncertainty was 2cm, what would the measurement be?
71cm ± 2cm
What is the uncertainty for a single measurement?
The resolution of the measuring instrument
What is a solid to a liquid?
What is a liquid to a gas?
What is a gas to a liquid?
What is a liquid to a solid?
What is a gas to a solid?
What is a solid to a gas?
What happens to the temperature as the substance changes state?
It stays the same
What can affect the melting and boiling points of a substance?
What is internal energy?
The energy stored by particles. It is the sum of-
-the kinetic energy of the particles due to their individual motions relative to eachother
-the potential energy they have due to their individual positions relative to eachother
Only includes the energies of the particles, not the whole substance
What happens when you heat a substance?
This increases the energy of the particles, so it increases the internal energy of the substance
What is the specific heat capacity formula?
change in energy= mass x specific heat capacity x change in temperature
What is specific latent heat of fusion?
Lf is the energy required to turn 1kg of a substance from a solid to a liquid and is the extra energy gained by the particles during the change of state
What is the formula for Lf?
What is the specific heat of vapourisation?
Lv is the energy required to turn 1kg of a substance from a liquid to a gas and is the extra energy gained by the particles during the change of state
What is the formula for Lv?
Why does evaporation take place and why do substances cool?
The particles in a liquid have different energies. Some will have enough energy to escape from the liquid and become a gas. The remaining particles in the liquid will now have a lower average kinetic energy than before so the liquids temperature will now be cooler as evaporation happens.
What is the formula for pressure?
Pressure = Force÷Area
What is pressure?
Particles in a gas move around at random, colliding with eachother and the container walls.
-millions of collisions per second
-they exert a force on the walls
-the force creates pressure
What happens to the substance when you increase the temperature?
It increases the pressure because the average kinetic energy of the gas molecules increases so their speed increases meaning the particles collide with the walls more frequently and with a greater force.
What is Brownian motion?
The random motion of gas particles
Gas particles hit a smoke particle so it is pushed into a different area in a different direction.
What are the 2 things that have an effect on volume?
Pressure and Temperature
How does pressure effect volume?
The higher the pressure the smaller the volume- particles more tightly packed
How does temperature effect volume?
The higher the temperature the larger the volume- particles spread out as they gain more heat energy
What happens if you push air into a sealed syringe filled with gas?
Work is done by applying a force
1- the volume of the gas decreases
2- this means the particles apply a higher force to the sides of the syringe
3-this causes the pressure to increase
-the temperature stays the same because any heat that is generated is lost to the surroundings at the same rate it is produced.
-BUT if it is done too quickly the work done will increase the internal energy of the gas so it's temperature will increase
What is Boyles Law?
For any fixed mass of gas there is a fixed number of molecules, reducing the volume pushes the particles closer together so the pressure increases because the particles hit the sides of the particle more often so there is more force on the container
How can you calculate the constant with pressure and volume?
Constant= Pressure x Volume
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