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Chapter 4 Science Notes
Terms in this set (22)
What is a rock?
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals or organic matter
What is weathering?
the process by which water, wind, ice, and heat break down rock
What is erosion?
the process by which water, ice, or gravity transport sediment and soil from one location to another
What is deposition?
the process in which material is laid down
What is uplift?
the movement within the Earth that causes rocks inside the Earth to be moved to the Earth's surface
What is sediment?
rock and mineral fragments made from erosion
What is magma?
the hot liquid that forms when rock partially or completely melts
What is a rock's composition ?
A rock's composition, is the chemical makeup of a rock; it can either describe the minerals or other materials in the rock.
What is a rocks texture?
can tell the quality of a rock that is based on the size, shapes, and positions of the rock's grains.
What is an igneous rock and how can it form?
An igneous rock is a rock that forms when hot, liquid lava, or magma, cools and solidifies. Igneous rock can form intrusively or extrusively. Intrusive rock is formed beneath earth's surface and extrusive igneous rock is formed at or near the surface of earth.
What are the characteristics of felsic rock?
light-colored rocks are rich in elements such as aluminum, potassium, silicon, and sodium
What are the characteristics of mafic rock?
dark-colored rocks are rich in calcium, iron, and magnesium, and poor in silicon
What is the difference between intrusive and extrusive rock?
Intrusive igneous rock is rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma beneath the Earth's surface, but extrusive igneous rock is rock that forms as a result of volcanic activity at or near the Earth's surface
What is the difference between the types of igneous intrusive rock?
Plutons: large, irregular-shaped intrusive bodies,
Batholiths: the largest type of igneous intrusions,
Stocks: intrusive bodies that are exposed over
smaller areas than batholiths
Dikes: sheetlike intrusions that cut across previous rock layers
Sills: sheetlike intrusions that form parallel to previous rock layers
What is sedimentary rock?
Sedimentary rock is when sediment is compacted and forms a layer of rock
What is strata?
A strata is the layers of a rock.
What are the 3 types of sedimentary rock and the difference between them?
Clastic sedimentary rock is rock made of fragments of rocks. Chemical sedimentary rock forms from solutions of dissolved minerals and water. Organic sedimentary rock is formed from the remains, or fossils, of animals that once lived in the ocean. The difference between the three is clastic is made of fragments, chemical is made of solutions of dissolved water and minerals, and organic is made of fossils from the ocean.
What is metamorphic rock and how does it form?
A metamorphic rock is a type of rock which has been changed by extreme heat and pressure.It is the depth and pressure at which metamorphic rocks form that allows the rocks to heat to this temperature and maintain its solid nature
What is the difference between contact and regional metamorphism?
Contact metamorphism occurs near igneous intrusion, but regional metamorphism occurs when pressure builds up in rock that is buried deep below other rock formations or when large pieces of Earth's crust collide with each other.
What are index minerals?
They are minerals that only form at certain temperatures and pressures. They are used to estimate the temperature, depth, and pressure at which a rock undergoes metamorphism
What is a foliated texture?
The texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
What is nonfoliated metamorphic rock?
This is the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands.
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