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Terms in this set (58)

Established in Hawthorne, CA in 1961 (led by Brian Wilson); first associated with the Southern California surf craze. Over several years, this group's style went through various stages of development, from imitation of rock 'n' roll/ R&B hits (Chuck Berry's music was especially influential, "Surfin' USA," 1962), to a more innovative style, expanding on traditions ("I Get Around," 1964, first Number One hit for the group), and eventually highly experimental styles (The album Pet Sounds, 1966, and the single track "Good Vibrations," 1966, both produced by Brian Wilson).
Pet Sounds (1966) is considered the first concept album, which carries one theme/narrative from the beginning to the end of the album. Not commercially successful upon its release, but today is recognized as one of the most important albums in popular music history, and influential on many artists, including the Beatles.
"Good Vibrations" (1966); originally recorded for the Smile album (not completed until 2004). This single track was a Number One hit when it was released. Features a non-traditional form (begins verse-chorus, then departs from this), and unusual instruments (organ, flute, cellos, Theremin, plus more traditional rock instruments). Expensive to record: approx. $75,000, in 1966, and weeks of recording sessions in a variety of locations. Multi-track recording was still relatively new, and Wilson's complex production style was highly innovative and unlike anything else that had been recorded until that point.
English rock band formed in 1960; first popular in the UK and Germany; "Beatlemania" spread to the United States a bit later, surrounding their first tour in early- 1964. Began with cover versions of American rock n' roll hits; enduring commercial success through their own music; influences include American R&B and country blues, as well as "exotic" instruments and music from India
The Beatles' musical style: Reference to traditional popular music forms; verse- chorus, AABA, 12-bar blues; emphasis on melody; imaginative instrumentation; music often reflects the lyrics
Various examples illustrate the diversity, but also universal appeal, of their style in the mid-1960s:
"A Hard Day's Night" (1964): Title song of the film by the same name, starring the Beatles. The song contains updated traditional elements; modified AABA form; modified 12-bar blues (in section A, "blue notes" added to traditional harmonies; the chord changes don't always happen in the expected places)
"Yesterday" (1965): Released on the album Help! Solo voice: Paul McCartney; instrumentation: acoustic guitar and string quartet; romantic ballad; strong roots in Tin Pan Alley; form: similar to "A Hard Day's Night" (modified Tin Pan Alley)
"Eleanor Rigby" (1966): One of the Beatles' most experimental songs; traditional verse-chorus form; unusual instrumentation: string quartet (like "Yesterday," without guitar). Poetic, abstract lyrics describe two lonely people and their futile lives. Music reflects the lyrics: harmony alternates between two chords (loneliness, futility); melody does not lead anywhere. Verse-Chorus form—alternates between persistent refrain and narrative; some overlap toward end.