154 terms

Earth Science SOL Review

SOL Review: Scientific Investigation Mapping the Earth Minerals and Rocks Geologic Processes/Features (Plate Tectonics, Earthquakes, Volcanoes) Freshwater/Geologic Processes and Features Renewable & Non-Renewable Resources Historical Geology Virginia Geology Oceanography The Atmosphere (Meteorology) Astronomy
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Density
This equals the mass of an objects * its volume. The unit for this is g/mL.
Water Displacement
How do you find the volume for an irregular object?
Warm
This type of air/water/magma rises because it's less dense
Cold
This type of air/water/magma sinks because it's more dense
Pressure
What else increases when density increases?
1g/mL
What is the density of liquid water?
Liquid
This form of water is the most dense
Hypothesis
A prediction about a problem that can be tested
Variable
A changeable factor in an experiment
Constants
Factors that are the same throughout an experiment
True
True or False, there an be more than one explanation for any phenomena?
Independent Variable
This type of variable is the one that YOU change
Dependent Variable
This type of variable is the result of the manipulation of the IV
Control
The part of an experiment where there's no manipulation of the IV (ex. the blank cereal box)
Latitude
Lines that go east-west, but measure north and south of the Equator
Longitude
Lines that go north-south, but measure east and west of the Prime Meridian
False
True or False, when finding the coordinates of a location, the longitude is first and the latitude is second?
Steeper
The closer the contour lines, the ____ the slope.
Upstream
Contour lines form V's and point in this direction when there are rivers and creeks present
Contour Interval
The increase in elevation between two adjacent contour lines
Mineral
This is found in nature, is inorganic, solid, and has a definite chemical composition and structure
Atomic
Mineral properties depend on this type of structure
Hardness
A way to identify a mineral; it tells us what can scratch the mineral
Color
The least efficient way to identify a mineral is by it's...
Luster
The shine of a mineral
Streak
The color of the powder in a mineral
Rock
This is made of one or more minerals
Silicates
The most abundant group of minerals that contain silicon and oxygen
Igneous
These type of rocks are produced by the cooling of magma or lava and are classified by composition and texture
Extrusive
Fast cooling rocks with small, fine-grained mineral grains, glassy, air holes present (ex. pumice, basalt, obsidian)
Intrusive
Slow cooling rocks with coarse or large mineral grains
Metamorphic
This type of rock is formed by heat and pressure or chemical action
Foliated
These metamorphic rocks have banded layers
Non-Foliated
These metamorphic rocks do not have banded layers
Sedimentary
This type of rock is formed from rock fragments, organic material, or chemical precipitation
Sedimentary
Fossils are found in this type of rock
Sedimentary
This type of rock can be classified into three groups, clastic, organic, and chemical
Limestone
This rock is formed both chemically and organically
Clastic
This type of rock is made of fragments (ex. conglomerate, sandstone, shale)
Non-Renewable
Coal, oil, and mineral are all these type of resources
Lithosphere
This part of the Earth is made up of the crust and upper mantle
Asthenosphere
This part of the Earth is made up of the lower mantle
Ocean
This crust is thinner, younger, and denser than continental crust
Continental
This crust is thicker, older, and less dense of oceanic crust
Ocean
This plate will always sink under a continental plate because it's more dense
Convection Currents
These move tectonic plates
Convergent Boundaries
Colliding plates which cause folded or thrust faulted mountains, subduction zones (volcanoes & trenches), and reverse faults. It involves compression.
Collision Zones
Folded and thrust-faulted mountains are features of these convergent boundary type of zones
Subduction Zones
Volcanoes and trenches are features of these convergent boundary type of zones
Divergent Boundaries
Dividing plates which cause sea-floor spreading, mid-ocean ridges, rift valleys, and volcanoes.
Transform Boundaries
These slide past each other and produce strike slip faults and earthquakes
Folds
Wave-like forms made of horizontally compressed rocks; commonly occurs during continental collisions
Folded
What type of mountains are the Appalachians?
Fault
A break or crack in the Earth's crust where the tectonic plate movement has occurred
3
How many seismic stations are needed to find the epicenter of an earthquake?
P Waves
Which waves travel the fastest and reach the seismic station first?
S Waves
Which waves are the second to reach the seismic station and can not travel through liquids?
L Waves
Which waves are the last to reach the seismic station?
Volcanic
____ activity is associated with subduction, rifting, or sea floor spreading, and hot spots.
Cinder Cones
These types of volcanoes form steep sided mountains and have violent eruptions
Shield Volcanoes
These types of volcanoes form low sloping and broad mountains where the eruptions are generally considered quiet and oozing
Composite Volcanoes
These types of volcanoes are a combination of cinder cones and shield volcanoes in their actions. They alternately erupt violently and quietly forming layers that show evidence of the varying eruption types
Weathering
The process of rocks breaking down chemically and physically by water, air, and organisms
Chemical Weathering
This type of weathering alters the chemical makeup of a rock and occurs in warm, humid climates
Mechanical Weathering
This type of weathering alters the physical look of a rock and occurs in cold climates
Frost Wedging
When a rock with a crack in it gets filled with water, which freezes, expands the rock, and then melts
Erosion
The process of Earth's materials being transported by moving water, ice, or wind
Gravity
What causes erosion?
Erosion
Streams and moving water are the major agents of ____.
Deposition
The process of Earth's materials being carried by wind, water, or ice and settling out and being deposited
False
True or false, smaller particles settle out first?
Permeability
The ability for water to move through soil
Soil
Loose rock fragments and clay derived from weathered rock mixed with organic material
Karst Topography
An area with caves and sinkholes
Limestone
What rock is dissolved by acidid groundwater forming caves?
Porosity
The amount of space between the soil where the water will move
True
True or False, water does not pass through impermeable materials?
Cone of Depression
This is formed when more water is being used up than being replenished
Aquifer
This is a layer of permeable rock that transports groundwater freely and is confined between 2 impermeable rock layers
Spring
This area is where the water table reaches the land's surface
False
True or False, ores are not useful and profitable?
Virginia
What state has resources including limestone, gravel, and coal?
Renewable Resources
Resources that can be replaced by nature at a rate close to the rate at which they are used (ex. vegetation, sunlight, surface water)
Non-Renewable Resources
Resources that are renewed very slowly or not at all (ex. coal, oil, minerals)
Fossil
This is the remains, impressions, or other evidence of a former existence of life preserved in a rock
Marine Organisms
What type of fossils are mostly found in Virginia?
Carbon-14
This is used to find the ages of human artifacts or things that were once living
4.6 Billion Years
How old is planet Earth?
Coastal Plain, Piedmont, Blue Ridge, Valley and Ridge, and the Appalachian Plateau
What are the 5 physiographic provinces of Virginia?
Coastal Plain
This VA region is the flattest
Piedmont
This VA region is an are of rolling hills, igneous and metamorphic rocks
Blue Ridge
This VA region is a high region separating the Piedmont from the Valley and Ridge regions; it has some of the oldest rocks in the state
Valley and Ridge
This VA region has long parallel ridges and valleys composed of folded and faulted rocks that occurred during the collision of Africa and North American during the Paleozoic Era.
Appalachian Plateau
This VA region has rugged, irregular topography and is underlain by ancient, flat-lying sedimentary rocks; most of VA's coal is found here
2
How many high and low tides occur each day?
Tide
The daily periodic rise and fall of water level caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and the moon
Cold to Warm
Do currents run from warm to cold or cold to warm areas?
Upwelling
This brings cold, nutrient rich water from the bottom of the ocean to the surface
Estuaries
These places are where salt water mixes with fresh water; it's a partially enclosed body of water with open access to the sea or ocean (ex. Chesapeake Bay)
Cyanobacteria
What bacteria was responsible for the first oxygen on Earth?
Waves
These are in the ocean and are generated by wind
Oceans
Continental shelves, slopes, abyssal plains, and seamounts can all be found in ____.
Earth
What planet has an atmosphere that is 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, and 1% trace gases?
Venus
What planet has an atmosphere of mostly carbon dioxide and is very dense?
Mars
What planet has an atmosphere that is very thin and is mostly carbon dioxide?
Greenhouse Effect
This effect is caused by high CO2 levels.
Radiation
The transfer of energy from the Sun to the Earth in the form of electromagnetic waves
Conduction
The transfer of energy through direct contact
Convection
The transfer of energy through the flow of a heated material and is a major cause of weather in the atmosphere
Clouds
These form when the air is at or below the dew point and condensation nuclei are present
Coriolis Effect
This effect causes deflections of the atmosphere and oceans due to the rotation of the Earth
Psychrometer
This measures humidity
Barometer
This measures air pressure
Thermometer
This measures temperature
Anemometer
This measures wind speed
Winds
These are formed due to unequal heating of the atmosphere that causes air pressure differences; they move from high to low pressure areas
Cold Fronts
these fronts move quickly and produce rain at the front
Warm Fronts
These fronts move slow and produce many clouds and long periods of gentle rain
climate
the typical weather patterns for a given location over a period of many years
Polar
this climate is cold
Temperate
This climate is enjoyable
Tropical
this climate is hot
Tornado
a narrow violent funnel shaped column of spiral winds that extends downward
Hurricane
a tropical cyclone characterized by winds of 120 km/hr or greater
Solar Nebulae theory
this theory explains that the planets formed from the condensing of our sun or solar nebulae
Sun
What's life cycle consists of nebulae, yellow main sequence star, red giant, white dwarf, and black dwarf?
Yellow Main Sequence
What kinds of star is the Sun?
Black Holes
These are the death stage of stars
Milky Way
We are located in this, spiral galaxy
Hubble space telescope
this telescope has improved our knowledge of the Universe
red shift
the reason the universe is parting from us
the big bang theory
the theory that once the entire universe was stuck together and then exploded creating what we have today
summer solstice
June 21st is what solstice?
winter solstice
Dec 21st is what solstice?
solstice
when the sun is at its most northern or southern point
equinoxes
occur when the sun is directly above the equator
W to E
the earth rotates in what direction?
CCW
does the earth revolve around the sun CW or CCW?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
what is the order of the planets?
Asteroid Belt
a belt of asteroids between mars and jupiter
Inner
these planets are small, solid, rocky, dense, have fast orbits, and a small # of moons (ex. mercury, venus, earth, mars)
Outer
these plants are big, gassy, have rings, and lots of moons (ex. jupiter, saturn, uranus, neptune)
Comets
there orbit the sun and are mainly frozen gas; dirty snowballs
Solar wind
why does a comet's tail point away from the sun?
Asteroids
rock/metallic iron objects in space
Solar Eclipses
when the moon blocks out the sun from reaching the earth
Lunar eclipses
when the earth blocks out the sun from reaching the moon
Hydrogen Gas
the sun consists mainly of this gas
nuclear fusion
the sun's energy comes from this of hydrogen to helium
stars
these are formed by the condensation of interstellar gas
the h-r diagram
this diagram shows the relationship of stars being hot, dim, bright, and cool
spiral
this type of galaxy is our galaxy, the milky way
elliptical
this type of galaxy is basically one, huge shape
irregular
this type of galaxy is some small oval shapes
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