temples and pyramids, accomplished artistry, developed a sophisticated calendar, evidence of farming, cleared dense rainforest, built a patchwork of city states, evidence of religion, evidence of war, developed a writing system with hieroglyphs, dates, symbols, and time. Soon after independence, strong, wealthy leaders called Caudillos came into power. They ruled by military force, they were supported by landed elites. Many kept the new nationalized states together. Some were modernizers who built roads, canals, and schools. Some were destructive, like Santa Anna in Mexico, who misused state funds, halted reform, and created chaos and war. Some were constructive supported by the masses, and served as instruments of human change, like Juan Manuel de Rosas of Argentina, who favored Argentinian interests against foreigners. In general Caudillos added to the instability of Latin America because authority depended on their personal power, and when they died or lost power, civil wars broke out for control. Improvements were due to, in large extent, the export of a few basic crops: wheat and beef from Argentina, coffee from Brazil, coffee and bananas from Central America, and silver and sugar from Peru. These raw products were exchanged for finished goods, like textiles, machines, and luxury items, from Europe and the USA. After 1900, Latin America expanded it's own bit of industrialization in textiles, food processing, and construction material. All of these things led to a growth in Latin American economy and added dependency on the West. There was also a growth and expansion in middle sectors of Latin American society, and urbanization came with industry. Middle class included lawyers, merchants, shopkeepers, business people, school teachers, beaurecrats, and military officers. As working classes grew, labor unions grew. Government elites limited the working class by limiting their right to vote. The US had begun to interfere in the affairs of Mexico. Cuba became a US protectorate and Puerto rico was annexed outright to the US because of the Spanish American War. The US supported a rebellion that enabled Panama to separate itself from Colombia and establish a new nation. The US was granted control of a ten-mile wide canal zone in Panama thanks to their help in P's independence. US made many investments in Latin America including sending American military forces to Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic to protect American interests. There was an increasing amount of Latin American resentment in the US's interference. The US also put investment funds directly into production enterprises and large segments of Latin America;s export industry fell into US hands. The United Fruit Company turned a number of Central American states into Banana Republics by owning the land, packing plants, and railroads there. US companies gained control of copper mining industry in Chile and Peru. They dominated the oil industry in Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia. Profits form US businesses often used to keep ruthless dictators in power. Before, an elite group of church officials, large landowners, and military leaders led the "republics," and foreign investors supported them. After the great depression, governments changed to authoritarianism. Because of domestic instability due to the economic crises, military coups and dictatorships took over argentina, brazil, chile, peru, guatemala, el salvador, and honduras. These were traditional Authoritarian regimes.