- To keep public order. - To protect individual freedoms. - To regulate relationships. - To set standards. - To provide solutions for legal problems.
Classification of Law
- International and national law. - Public and private law.
Differences Between Civil and Criminal Law
- Criminal cases are where the State accuses someone of a crime. - Civil cases are taken by individual people or businesses in order to claim or enforce a right.
- When an action breaches two types of law.
Criminal Courts (Magistrates' Courts)
- Cases are tried by a district judge or lay magistrates.
Criminal Courts (Crown Court)
- Cases are tried by a judge and jury.
Criminal Appeal Courts
- Crown Court (for appeals from the Magistrates' Courts) - High Court Administrative Court (for appeals from the Magistrates' Court on points of law) - Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) for appeals from the Crown Court - Supreme Court for a further appeal from the Court of Appeal
Civil Courts (County Court)
- Cases are decided by judges.
Civil Courts (High Court
- Deals with claims of more than £15,000.
Civil Appeal Courts
- High Court (for appeals from the County Court) - Court of Appeal (Civil Division) for appeals from the High Court - Supreme Court for a further appeal from the Court of Appeal
Magistrates' Courts (Summons)
- A document sent by post to the accused person.
Magistrates' Courts (Arrest)
- For more serious offences, the suspected person will be arrested by the police.
Magistrates' Courts (Police Bail)
- After the suspect has been charged the police may decide to allow them bail.
The Crown Prosecution Service
- The CPS is responsible for prosecuting most cases in the criminal courts.
Magistrates' Courts Duty Solicitors
- While a suspect is being held by the police at a police station, he or she has the right to consult a lawyer.
Magistrates' Courts Bail
- Police Bail/Bail at Court
Magistrates' Courts Summary Offences
- Less serious offences which can be tried only in a Magistrates' Court.
Magistrates' Courts Offences Triable Either Way
- Offences which can be tried either in the Magistrates' Court or in the Crown Court.
Magistrates' Courts Indictable Offences
- More serious offences which can be tried only at the Crown Court.
Magistrates' Courts Guilty Plea/Not Guilty Plea
- The defendant can plea guilty or not guilty.
Magistrates' Courts Sentencing
- Before sentencing a defendant, they will hear about the defendant's past convictions and his or her background and financial situation.
Magistrates' Courts Appeals
- The defendant has the right to appeal against both conviction and/o sentence.
Crown Court Trial on Indictment
- An indictment is the document setting out the charges against the defendant.
Crown Court Role of the Judge
- Before the trial. - Guilty plea. - At the trial. - Sentencing.
Crown Court Role of the Jury
- Decide the verdict.
Crown Court Sentencing
- Custody. - Community orders. - Fines. - Discharge.
Crown Court Appeals
- Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) - Further Appeal at Supreme Court.
- Most people will try to come to an agreement rather than start court proceeding.s.
Citizens Advice Bureaux
- Issue general advice on legal matters.
Funding a Civil Case
- Public funding. - Conditional fees. - Insurance. - Public Funding.
Bringing a Civil Claim
- The claim form. - Defending the claim. - The track system. - Small claims. - Fast-track cases. - Multi-track cases.
- Damages. - Injunctions
- Set up to deal with specific types of claim. - Enforce Human Rights