Chapter 12 Vocabulary Friedland

Becquerel (Bq)
Unit that measures the rate at which a sample of radioactive material decays
A degraded petroleum that forms when petroleum migrates to the surface of Earth and is modified by bacteria.
In reference to an electricity-generating plant, the maximum electrical output.
Capacity Factor
The fraction of time a power plant operates in a year.
A solid fuel formed primarily from the remains of trees, ferns, and other plant materials preserved 280 million to 360 million years ago.
The use of a fuel to generate electricity and produce heat.
Combined Cycle
A power plant that uses both exhaust gases and steam turbines to generate electricity.
Commercial Energy Source
An energy source that is bought and sold.
Control Rod
A cylindrical device inserted between the fuel rods in a nuclear reactor to absorb excess neutrons and slow or stop the fission reaction.
Crude Oil
Liquid petroleum removed from the ground.
CTL (coal to liquid)
The process of converting solid coal into liquid fuel.
A unit of measure for radiation.
Electrical Grid
A network of interconnected transmission lines that joins power plants together and links them with end users of electricity.
Energy Carrier
Something that can move and deliver energy in a convenient, usable form to end users.
Energy Intensity
The energy use per unit of gross domestic product.
A nuclear reaction in which a neutron strikes a relatively large atomic nucleus, which then splits into or more parts, releasing additional neutrons and energy in the form of heat.
Fossil Fuels
A fuel derived from biological material that became fossilized millions of years ago.
Fuel Rod
A cylindrical tube that encloses nuclear fuel within a nuclear reactor.
Hubbert Curve
A bell-shaped curve representing oil use and projecting both when world will run out of oil.
Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
Natural gas converted to liquid form by cooling it to a very low temperature.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG)
Mixture of liquefied propane and butane gas removed from natural gas and used as a fuel.
Natural Gas
Underground deposits of gases consisting of 50-90% by weight methane gas and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds such as propane and butane.
Net Energy
Total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used, automatically wasted, and unnecessarily wasted in finding, processing, concentrating, and transporting it to users.
Nonrenewable Energy Resource
An energy source with a finite supply, primarily the fossil fuels and nuclear fuels.
Nuclear Fuel
Fuel derived from radioactive materials that give off energy.
Nuclear Fusion
A reaction that occurs when lighter nuclei are forced together to produce heavier nuclei.
Oil Sands
Slow-flowing, viscous deposits of bitumen mixed with sand, water, and clay.
Peak Oil
The point at which half the total known oil supply is used up.
Peak Production
Point in time when the pressure in an oil well drops and its rate of conventional crude oil production starts declining, usually a decade or so.
Chemicals obtained by refining crude oil. They are used as raw materials in manufacturing most industrial chemicals, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, synthetic fibers, paints, medicines, and many other products.
A fossil fuel that occurs in underground deposits, composed of a liquid mixture of hydrocarbons, water, and sulfur.
Proven Oil Reserves
Identified deposits from which conventional crude oil can be extracted profitably at current prices with current technology.
Radioactive Waste
Nuclear fuel that can no longer produce enough heat to be useful in a power plant but continues to emit radioactivity.
Shale Oil
Slow-flowing, dark brown, heavy oil obtained when kerogen in oil shale is vaporized a high temperatures and then condensed.
Subsistence Energy Source
An energy source gathered by individuals for their own immediate needs.
Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG)
Gaseous fuel containing mostly methane produced from solid coal.
Tar Sand
Deposit of a mixture of clay, sand, water, and varying amounts of a tarlike heavy oil known as bitumen.
A device with blades that can be turned by water, wind, steam, or exhaust gas from combustion that turns a generator in an electricity-producing plant.
Unproven Reserves
Other than proven oil reserves are, deposits of potentially recoverable oil.