the most general and remote, refer to the normative forces holding a group together.
Environmental factors are present when, for example, players are under contract to the management, athletes hold scholarships, family members have expectations of athletes, geographical restrictions exist (e.g., having to play for a certain high school because of where you live), regulations specify the minimum playing time in a youth sport program, and exercisers pay an extra fee for their class.
other factors such as age, proximity, or eligibility requirements can also play an important role. For example, having individuals in close proximity to each other with opportunities for interaction and communication fosters group development.
the size of a group affects cohesion: Smaller groups are more cohesive than larger groups. Furthermore, level of competition seems to influence cohesion: High school teams are more cohesive than collegiate teams.
a tool for measuring social cohesion. It discloses affiliation and attraction among group members, including the presence or absence of cliques, members' perceptions of group closeness, friendship choices in the group, the degree to which athletes perceive interpersonal feelings similarly, social isolation of individual group members, and extent of group attraction.
To generate information for the sociogram, you ask individual group members specific questions such as "Name the three people in the group you would most like to invite to a party and the three people you would least like to invite," "Name the three people you would most like to room with on road trips and the three you would least like to room with," or "Name three people you would most like to practice with during the off-season and three you would least like to practice with." Confidentiality must be ensured, and honesty in responses should be encouraged.
model (MAPS) to help guide the building of various sport teams.
Mission: The mission helps guide the individuals on the team toward higher team-oriented goals. In essence, it is the philosophy driving these goals, which may focus on performance improvement, winning, moral development, intrinsic motivation, or enjoyment.
Assessment: Identifying team strengths and areas of improvement can help coaches develop resources, changes, and processes that will improve the team's potential to achieve its goals.
Plan: Action plans for each person and for the team as a whole can improve effort and commitment. These steps should have a clear consensus with concrete behaviors, targeted actions, and specific timelines.
Systematic evaluation: Periodically reviewing the entire "road map" and looking at how plans were implemented and goals were reached provides a time for reflection, review, and revision.