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. Nervous System and Immune System/ Skeletal System, Muscular System, and Integumentary System/ Digestive System and Excretory System/ Digestive System and Excretory System
Terms in this set (39)
The fertilization of a female egg cell with a male sperm cell.
Female reproductive cells.
The body's system of glands that produce hormones.
The union of the male gamete (sperm cell) and the female gamete (egg cell).
An organ or group of cells that secretes a chemical substance of the body.
A chemical substance produced by the glands of the endocrine system in order to control specific tissues and organs.
Organ in the abdomen that secretes both digestive chemicals and hormones.
The "master gland" that controls the others.
The male reproductive cell.
Hormone that regulates body energy usage.
The endocrine system regulates the body's metabolism, growth, and functions of sexual organs. It consists of glands which secrete chemicals directly into the bloodstream. These chemicals are known as hormones. Hormones control the functioning of organs.
The main gland of the endocrine system is the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, controls and regulates all the other glands. It also controls the body's rate of growth. How fast you grow and how tall you eventually become is dependent upon the pituitary's excretion of growth hormones. Growth hormones act as messengers, telling your bones and tissues to create more cells, thus producing growth. Other glands of the endocrine system include the pancreas, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal, and the reproductive glands.
The pancreas, a gland near the stomach, produces the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar. You have already learned that the pancreas is also responsible for secreting digestive chemicals into the small intestine. With multiple functions, the pancreas is part of the endocrine system and the digestive system
The adrenal glands are located near the kidneys. They produce a hormone called epinephrine or adrenaline. This hormone initiates the "fight or flight" reaction.
The thyroid gland is located near your larynx in your neck. This gland is responsible for regulating the body's energy. If the thyroid gland is functioning improperly, the body may experience problems. An overactive thyroid may cause a nervous or overactive reaction while an underactive thyroid can cause fatigue and weight gain. The parathyroid gland is located behind the thyroid gland and regulates calcium levels in the body.
The reproductive glands are different for males and females. Female reproductive glands are called ovaries. The ovaries produce egg cells for reproduction. Male reproductive glands are called testes or testicles. These glands produce sperm cells for reproduction.
The reproductive system has four main purposes. As mentioned above in our discussion of the endocrine system, the reproductive system must produce hormones. It also produces reproductive cells, egg cells for females and sperm cells for males. In addition, the reproductive system must transport and sustain these cells. Finally, the reproductive system must nurture the developing offspring. Since female egg cells and male sperm cells meet in the female body in order to reproduce, the task of nurturing developing offspring is unique to the female reproductive system.
In form and function, the reproductive organs of the female differ from that of the male. The reproductive system of a female is located internally around the pelvic area. The main organs of the female system are the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. The ovaries produce the egg cells that are necessary for reproduction. When an egg is produced in an ovary, it migrates through the fallopian tubes toward the uterus. If an egg cell is fertilized by a sperm cell, it is implanted in the uterus. This is where a fetus grows and develops. When a baby is ready to be born, muscular contractions push it from the uterus, through the vagina, and into the world!
Unlike the female reproductive organs, the male reproductive organs are located internally and externally around the pelvic area. These reproductive organs are the testicles, the duct system, the accessory glands, and the penis. Testicles are responsible for producing the male reproductive cells, sperm. As you learned earlier, testicles are also part of the endocrine system. Sperm travels through the duct system to get from the testicles to the penis. The accessory glands lubricate and nourish the sperm as they travel through this duct system. The penis is the site where sperm cells are able to exit the male body in order to fertilize an egg cell.
Conception or fertilization occurs when the female gamete (egg cell) is fertilized by the male gamete (sperm cell). Both the female and the male reproductive systems are necessary for reproduction to occur.
Connection between the spinal cord and the upper parts of the brain.
central nervous system
The brain and the spinal cord.
Part of the brain that coordinates movement.
The largest part of the brain, responsible for thinking and moving.
A sudden surge of energy in one direction.
Part of the brain stem that controls involuntary body functions.
peripheral nervous system
The nerves throughout the body.
Part of the central nervous system that is enclosed in the spinal column.
The purpose of the nervous system is to gather, interpret, respond to, store, and retrieve information. The nervous system is comprised of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).
The central nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord. As the main component of the nervous system, the CNS receives information from sense organs, analyzes the information, and initiates a response which is carried to the designated body part via the peripheral nervous system. The PNS links the CNS to the rest of the body.
The brain has several major parts. The cerebrum is the largest part. It enables you to think, to feel emotions and to control your body. The cerebrum has two sides. The left side of the cerebrum controls the right side of your body and the right side of your cerebrum controls the left side of your body. The left side of the cerebrum deals with concrete things like math and speech, while the right side deals with abstract things like art and music.
Another part of the brain, the cerebellum controls coordination and posture. The cerebellum also helps you keep your balance. The medulla, a part of the brain stem, controls your vital functions. The medulla keeps organs like your intestines and lungs working and controls your blood pressure. Nerves from all parts of the body connect to the cerebrum and cerebellum through the brain stem.
The basic unit of the nervous system is a neuron, or nerve cell. A neuron transmits information in the form of an electrical impulse. Impulses can travel from neuron to neuron at speeds close to several hundred miles per hour.
As the central control unit of the body, the nervous system coordinates the body's systems via the autonomic nervous system and the somatic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system sends signals to certain organs so that they function without your conscious thought. For instance, you do not have to think about your stomach churning for it to digest your food. Your brain just tells your stomach to churn.
The somatic nervous system sends signals to muscles that are controlled voluntarily. For example, you have to think about whether you want to walk or run. Your legs are controlled by the somatic nervous system.
Similar to a well-organized army, your immune system defends your body from any organisms that threaten the destruction of cells. The body's first line of defense is located around the openings to the body. Saliva, mucus, and tiny hairs in and around the eyes, nose, and mouth destroy and carry away bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Invaders that reach the bloodstream are attacked by lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes are white blood cells that produce antibodies. Antibodies circulate in the bloodstream, seeking out bacteria to destroy. Lymphocytes also attack cells that have been infected by a virus, stopping the spread of disease.
The lymphatic system is a part of the immune system. It is a system of vessels responsible for the removal of bacteria from the bloodstream. Lymph nodes are glands that are attached to lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes hold and distribute lymphocytes. They also filter from the lymphatic system harmful bacteria which have been collected from the blood-stream. Their proper functioning is essential to good health.
Not controlled by will.
Tough, leathery structure that holds a joint together.
Rope-like structure that attaches muscle to bone.
Controlled by will.
The skeletal system consists of 206 bones, which are joined together by ligaments and tendons. The purpose of the skeletal system is to provide the body with a framework that is strong and mobile. It also is the body's main supplier of blood cells and minerals. Though extremely sturdy, bones are actually living organs.
The skeletal system is composed of two main parts-the axial and appendicular skeletons. The axial skeleton consists of the skull, spine, ribs, and sternum. It provides protection for the body's vital organs-the brain, heart, lungs, and spinal cord. The appendicular skeleton consists of all the bones in the shoulders, arms, hands, pelvis, legs, and feet. Movement is accomplished when the skeletal system works in tandem with the muscular system. Bones, which are held together at the joints by ligaments, move when pulled upon by surrounding muscles. Tendons connect the muscles to the bones in order for the movement to occur.
The muscular system allows the body to move. It is composed of approximately 600 skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles are controlled voluntarily. For example, the muscles in your arm are voluntary. In order for you to move your arm, you must make a conscious effort to do so.
Involuntary muscles move without conscious control. Cardiac and smooth muscles are types of involuntary muscles. Smooth muscles are found on the inside and the outside of organs. Cardiac muscles are only found in the heart. Unlike skeletal and smooth muscles, cardiac muscles contract rhythmically over 100,000 times a day for your whole life. Skeletal and smooth muscles move when nerve impulses, sent from the CNS, stimulate the muscle fibers, telling them to either contract or relax.
The integumentary system, the skin, protects the internal organs from harmful bacteria, sunlight, and injury. The skin is the largest organ of the body and consists of two layers: the epidermis and the dermis. The epidermis is the outer layer. It is made up of dead cells and new cells which make the body waterproof, give color to the skin, and help maintain the body's hydration levels.
The dermis is much thicker than the epidermis. It contains blood vessels, sweat glands, hair follicles, and nerve cells which function as sensory receptors. The dermis helps to maintain the body's temperature level. When your body temperature rises over a certain level, you begin to sweat. This is the functioning of the dermis layer of your skin, seeking to reduce your body's temperature. Likewise, when your skin gets "goose bumps," it is trying to warm your body. The skin is, in fact, constricting in an attempt to thicken itself, thus reducing the amount of heat that leaves the body.
A hollow, muscular organ at the bottom of the abdomen that holds and discharges urine.
Partly digested food that is passed from the stomach to the small intestine.
The process by which food is converted into a form that can be used by cells.
A muscular tube which transports food from the pharynx to the stomach.
A liquid filtered from the blood by the kidneys and discharged by the body as waste.
Hair-like parts of the small intestine that absorb nutrients from food.
The purpose of the digestive system is similar to that of the respiratory system. It prepares needed energy and building supplies for absorption by the cells. The digestive system is a long tube that stretches from the mouth to the anus. The tube is also known as the digestive tract. As food passes through the digestive tract, it is broken down into a substance that can be easily absorbed into the bloodstream.
The digestion process begins in the mouth. Teeth, salivary glands, and the tongue work together to break down the food into a substance that can be easily swallowed. The teeth tear and smash the food. The salivary glands secrete enzymes, which prepare the food for digestion in the stomach. The tongue manipulates the food in the mouth until it is well lubricated and chewed. The tongue then pushes the food into the pharynx. The pharynx seizes the food and forms it into small balls, which are pushed into the esophagus. The esophagus transports the balls of food into the stomach.
As mentioned previously, the stomach mixes the food with powerful chemicals to further the digestive process. The powerful chemicals, known as gastric juices, break down the food into a thick liquid substance called chyme. The stomach also functions as a storage tank, holding food until it passes into the small intestine. The small intestine secretes salts, acids, and enzymes, which continue the breakdown of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. These digestive juices originate in the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
Nutrients are absorbed into the blood-stream through small finger-like nodules on the wall of the small intestine called villi. Chemicals and other substances that cannot be digested by the body are passed into the large intestine. Villi in the large intestine absorb most of the water and the remaining amounts of vitamins and minerals in the food. The undigested substance, known as feces, is expelled from the body through the anus.
The body removes other types of waste through a number of different openings and organs. The main organs of the excretory system are the kidneys. Waste-filled blood is routed to the kidneys via the renal artery. The kidneys then filter the blood, removing excess water, salts, uric acid, and chemicals from medications or poisonous substances. The liquid waste that is formed is called urine. Urine passes from the kidneys to the urinary bladder through two tubes called ureters. The waste is stored in the urinary bladder and removed from the body through a tube called the urethra. Excess salts and water are also excreted through sweat glands. Carbon dioxide and water vapors are expelled from the body by the lungs.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
How the Heart Works
Muscular Strength and Endurance
Evaluating Your Fitness Level
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