Civil War & Reconstruction (U.S. History Exam #2)

Fredrick Douglas
Pro- Slavery, Debated against for Presidency, called Lincoln an Abolitionist, Favored Popular Sovereignty in hope of Slavery spreading across Western U.S.
David Walker
A free black abolitionist originally from North Carolina who writes the Freedom Journal
William L. Garrison
Abolitionist: Wrote The Liberator, Promoted Women's suffrage.
Sojourner Truth
African-American abolitionist and women's rights activist.
Harriet Tubman
Created the Underground Railroad for escaped slaves.
Harriet B. Stowe
Abolitionist- Uncle Tom's Cabin- Slavery's Bad
American Colonization Society
Return free African Americans to Africa. Liberia becomes place of freed men
Missouri Compromise
Split America into Slave States and Freed States. Missouri Becomes Slave State, Maine Admitted as Freed State
Tallmadge Amendment
During Missouri Compromise: Tallmadge, an opponent of slavery, sought to impose conditions on Missouri that would extinguish slavery within a generation
Supported Centralized Banking and Tariffs to Spark American Economy
Liked Slaves, embraced immigrants as votes
Free Soil party
Opposed Slavery in West
Know Nothings
Anti Immigrant, Split on Slavery
Opposed Slavery, Brought together by Abe Lincoln
Texas Independence and Annexation
Annex of Texas mainly because of Manifest Destiny
Oregon Territory Acquisition
Polk desired Manifest Destiny and Acquired Western Coast
Mexican-American War
Self Explanatory, Treat of Guadalupe Hidalgo settles border at Rio Grande
James Polk
promises four things: National Bank, Lower Tariff Rates, Get Oregon Territory for British, Get SW from Mexico, Achieves all four things.
Walker Tariff
Lowered Tariffs, Helped South who didn't have much industry
Wilmot Proviso
Territory Gained by Mex- Am War is free
Gold Rush
California reaches statehood, gold rush!
Compromise of 1850
Since Cali breaks Mo. Compromise, a compromise must be met... never worked but all five separate legislations passed, averted civil war.
Fugitive Slave Act
All escaped slaves to be sent back to owners and fined.
Popular Sovereignty
State votes for what they want
Stephan Douglas
Supported Popular Sovereignty
Kansas- Nebraska Act
created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opened new lands, repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820, and allowed settlers in those territories to determine if they would allow slavery within their boundaries.
Bleeding Kansas
Popular Sovereignty Fails, start of civil war.
Potawatomic Creek Massacre
John Brown, believes slavery is awful. Retaliates on pro-slavery supporters
Sumner Brooks Incident
North (Sumner) criticizes south, South (Brooks) retaliates and beats him with his cane.
Ostend Manifesto
U.S. wants to eradicate slavery in Cuba, South worried b/c it is close!
Dred Scott v. Sanford
Full faith & Credit Clause makes it possible to own slaves in North if your owner moves there.
Roger Taney
Jury who states full faith and credit clause
James Buchanan
Civil War time president, bad president
Lecompton Compromise
Kansas deemed as a slave state with popular vote discussing the possibility of more slaves in Western Territories.
Raid on Harper's Ferry
Led by John Brown in hopes of reaching Confederate Armory, Gets Owned.
Abe Lincoln
Wartime President, Shot by James Wilkes Booth. Singular focus was to salvage the Union. Intended on abolishing slavery over time. Witty and logical- great speaker.
Freeport Doctrine
Douglas goes nuts for Popular Sovereignty in West. Southerners Unsure.
Lincoln Douglas Debates
Popular Sovereignty and Slavery Debates.
Election of 1860
Northerners Like Lincoln, Moderate, Southerners hate Lincoln favoring Douglas because of Lincoln's actions in Freeport Doctrine... Lincoln Wins, South Seceding.
John Breckenridge
Confederate General who became president proceeding Abe Lincoln.
First Ordinances of Secession
7 States Secede from the Union to create the Confederate States of America. Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina
Crittenden Compromise
Slavery will be protected where it already exists.
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America for its entire history
Ft. Sumter
n, South Carolina. Union is supposed to leave all Confederate state offices. Abe Lincoln thinks Sumter is important enough to stand ground. Creates a barricade around the Charleston bay. Ready to attack if Southerners initiate war. Starts War...
Northern Advantages in Civil War
Bigger population, more industry, more accessible railroads
Anaconda Plan
Reaction to Fort Sumter. Creates Barricade around Southeast and up the Mississippi. Naval Blockade prohibits trade out of the south.
Suspension of Habeas Corpus
Didn't want Northerners acting up about Union, no need to explain why being arrested
Bull Run I
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson was the confederate leader who stood his ground for the Confederacy. Reinforcements for Confederacy came and the Great Skedaddle took place- unorganized retreat of Union soldiers and families.
Limit War v. Total War
Limited War: Efficiently Fighting with strict rules to maintain info-structure. Total War: Destroy everything.
George McClellan
Union General who takes over and makes troops a fighting force. Saves army from falling apart. Newspapers called him "Young Napoleon".
Bloodiest Day in American History- Lee goes into Maryland to make it Confederate State, drops battle plans and McClellan picks it up. McClellan doesn't take advantage.
Emancipation Proclamation
States all states in rebellion are free. (Not border states) beginning of African American troops being recruited.
Huge win for Union (Meade) vs. Confederate Lee
Total War! Union (Grant) begins its march toward victory.
U.S. Grant Post Vicksburg
Traps Lee and forces him to Surrender
Election of 1864
Abe Lincoln Reelected; Death Blow to Slavery
Sherman's March to the Sea
Sherman (Confederacy) Marches to Savannah using total war tactics
John Wilkes Booth
Actor who Assassinates Abe Lincoln
10% Plan
Lincoln wanted 10% of Voting South to take an Oath to avoid Secession
Wade- Davis Bill
50% Voting Population to take an Oath to avoid Secession
13th Ammendment
Outlawed Slavery
Freedmen's Bureau
Basic Necessities Provided for emancipated slaves.
Southern whites who supported Reconstruction
14th Amendment
Citizenship for African Americans
Tenure in Office Act
President cannot fire senators and other governmental representatives
Impeachment of Johnson
Violated Tenure in Office Act!
"Wave the Bloody Shirt"
Lincoln's Reconstruction Slogan
15th Ammendment
Voting Rights for African Americans
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction.