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20 terms

Psychology Chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
Thinking
the mental activity that is involved in the understanding, processing, and communicating of information
Symbol
an object or an act that stands for something else
concept
a mental structure used to categorize objects, people, or events that share similar characteristics
prototype
an original model on which others in the same category are patterned
algorithm
a problem solving strategy that eventually leads to a solution; usually involves trying random solutions to a problem in a systematic way
heuristic
a strategy for making judgments and solving problems
difference reduction
a problem-solving method that involves reducing the difference between the present situation and the desired one
means-end analysis
a heuristic device in which a solution to a problem is found by evaluating the difference between the current situation and the goal
Incubation effect
the tendency to arrive at a solution after a period of time away from the problem
mental set
the tendency to approach a new problem in a way that has been successful in the past
convergent thinking
thinking that is limited to available facts
divergent thinking
a thought process that attempts to generate multiple solutions to a problem
deductive reasoning
a form of thinking in which conclusions are inferred from premises; the conclusions are true if the premises are true
premise
a statement or assertion that serves as the basis for an argument
inductive reasoning
a form of thinking that involves using individual cases or particular facts to reach a general conclusion
confirmation bias
the tendency to look for information that confirms one's preconceived notions
framing effect
the influence of wording or the way in which information is presented, on decision making
language
the communication of ideas through sounds and symbols that are arranged according to rules of grammar
syntax
the ways in which words and phrases are arranged into grammatical sentences
semantics
the study of the meaning in language the relationship between language; and the objects depicted by language