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U.S. History Unit 3 Vocab

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Alexander Hamilton
federalist; wrote Report on Pulic Credit and on Manufactures; trade as basis of wealth and power
Thomas Jefferson
democratic-republican; believed America to be based of farmers
Report on Public Credit
written by Hamilton; report on econ. policy
Report on Manufactures
written by Hamilton; laid down econ. principle of industry
Natl. Bank
Hamilton's plan to create a natl. bank; argued gov. needed to manage debts and interest payments
Citizen Genet
went to America as French leader to negotiate w/ G. Washington during French Revolution
Jay's Ttreaty
Washington sent John jay to negotiate with Brit,; had right to intercept American ships to France/Brit.; agreed not to war w/ America, give up forts in US, granted US most favorable status
John Adams
2ns President; Faced trouble in Quasi War w/ France
XYZ Affair
French leaders weren't willing to negotiate with Americans; wanted $ to talk of an agreement
Alien and Sedition Acts
alien: 3 laws stating aliens in America could be deported by President w/out trial; changed waiting period to become citizen from 5 to 14 year
sedition: law tried to prevent incitement to rebellion; illegal to say or print anything false of bad about gov.
both unconstitutional
12th amendment
corrected problems of Adams and Jefferson's tie in the Presidency
VA and KTresolutions
Republican legislatures of KT and VA led by Jefferson and Madison wrote resolutions criticizing Alien and Sedition Acts-argued to be unconstitutional
Lousiana Purchase
land West of Mississippi River bought by Jefferson from France
Lewis and Clark (Corps of Discovery)
expedition under Jefferson; sent to explore new Louisiana Purchase and find direct water route to Pacific; Lewis and Clark led the expedition
Sacajawea
Shoshone woman who joined expedition as guide and interpreter
John Marshall
Chief Justice; made SC powerful, independent branch
Marbury v. Madison
SC ruled the judiciary act of 17989 unconstitutional; gave SC power of judicial review
Embargo Act
Jefferson banned all trade with Euro. due to impressments by Brit.
Impressment
Brit. Navy kidnapped sailors aboard American ships and forced them to become Brit. sailors
Battle of Tippecanoe
Tecumseh gathered rebellious NA force who intercpted Harrison and troops; Harrison victory
James Madison
Wanted to avoid war; passed Non-Intercourse Act forbidding trade w/ France or Brit.
Tecumseh
believes NA's needed to unite in order to protect land against whites
War Hawks
Members of Congress who wanted war w/ Brit and France
Henry Clay
Leader of war hawks
Andrew Jackson
Became natl. hero after winning Battle of NO; led US troops into Florida to stop Seminole raids; disobeyed orders
Treatry of Ghent
B/w US and Brit.; ended War of 1812; Established US-Canadian border
Battle of New Orleans
majro battle that ended Battle of 1812; Andrew Jackson commander
Macon's Bill No. 2
reopened trade with Brit. and France; stated that if either nation dropped trade restrictions first, US would stop trade w/ other nation
John C. Calhoun
leader of war hawks
Tallmadge Amendment
No slavery in MO Territory; slaves reach 25 years of age and are free
MO Compromise
Deal that made Maine a free state; MO a slave state
Democratic-Republicans
Became Democrats
Natl.-Republicans
Created by Henry Clay's supporters
Worcester v. VA
Georgian NA's would not mov to Great Plains; case went to SC
Trail of Tears
Journey of NA's from their homeland to the Great Plains
Nullification
Theory thats states have the right to declare a federal law invalid
Martin Van Buren
...
Whigs
started in opposition to Jackson; gov. based on industrialism
Nat Turner
Enslaved AA who believed God had chosen him to lead his people out of slavery; led a rebellion where over 50 white people died
Spoils Sys.
Practice of giving people gov. jobs on the basis of loyalty
Party Caucus
sys. that restricted nominations of the elite or rich during elections
Eaton Affair
Based on Secretary of War John Eaton; marries someone of lower class; Van Buren eliminates him from Cabinet
Specie Circular
Only gold and silver may be used to purchase public land; used by Jackson to aid natl. bank
Eli Whitney
invented cotton gin and concept of interchangeable parts
Samuel Slater
built first Brit. water frame that made cotton thread
Waltham Sys.
Lowells mills in MA; provided houses for workers
Soc. Lag
dependecney on supply of workers
Francis Cabot Lowell
Opened mills in MA; mass production of cotton
Uniformity Sys.
...
Industrial Revolution
began in Brit.; manufacturing in factories
Transportation Revolution
Natl. Road, Erie Canal, Steamboats; new tech. leads to new transportation leads to expansion
Dorthea Dix
schoolteacher who taught at prison; leader for improving conditions for mentally ill
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
active in antislavery; Seneca Falls Convention; rights of women equal to men
Sojurner Truth
Free black woman; held speeches against slavery
Stephen F. Austin
Colonized bg part of Mexico; empresario
Horace Mann
Leader of public edu.
James K. Polk
Democratic President; annexed TX and Oregon Territory
Brigham Youg
Leader of Mormons Church
54-40 Line
US controls Oregon below 54-40 Latitude
Manifest Destiny
American dream of moving from one coast to the other
Zachory Taylor
Crossed Nueces River; Mexico considered it an invasion
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
ended US/Mexican War; Rio Grande as border; US gave 15 million; US got 500,000 miles of land