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can include physical threats, false accusations, being annoying, profanity, insults, yelling, harshness, ignoring someone, and unreasonableness
manipulation or falsification of a corporation's financial reports providing important information on which investors and others base decisions that may involve millions of dollars
Eighteenth-century British professor whose writings formed the basis of modern economics; observed and wrote about supply and demand, contractual efficiency, and division of labor; published The Theory of Moral Sentiments and the Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
affirmative action program
a program designed to provide work and education opportunities for women and minorities
Age Discrimination in Employment Act
outlaws hiring practices that discriminate against people between the ages of 49 and 69, as well as those that require employees to retire before the age of 70
behavior associated with a hostile workplace where an individual or a group considered a target is threatened, harassed, belittled, or verbally abused or overly criticized
Collateralized debt obligations
a type of structured asset-backed security (ABS) whose value and payments are derived from a portfolio of fixed-income underlying assets
conflict of interest
a situation in which a public official's decisions are influenced by the official's personal interests
Corporate Fraud Accountability Act
Title VIII of the Sarbanes-Oxley act that consists of seven sections and is also referred to as the "Corporate and Criminal Fraud Act of 2002"; describes specific criminal penalties for manipulation, destruction or alteration of financial records or other interference with investigations, while providing certain protections for whistle-blowers.
the collection and analysis of information on markets, technologies, customers, and competitors, as well as on socioeconomic and external political trends
a financial instrument that is derived from some other asset, index, event, value or condition (known as the underlying); rather than trade or exchange the underlying itself, derivative traders enter into an agreement to exchange cash or assets over time based on the underlying
a personal, loving, and/or sexual relationship with someone with whom one shares professional responsibilities
searching trash that has been discarded onto a public street or alley for trade secrets
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
enforces all federal laws prohibiting job discrimination and provides oversight and coordination of all federal equal employment opportunity regulations, practices, and policies
how wealth or income is distributed between employees within a company, a country, or across the globe
a problem, situation, or opportunity that requires an individual, group, or organization to choose among several wrong or unethical actions
a problem, situation, or opportunity that requires an individual, group, or organization to choose among several actions that must be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical
Federal Sentencing Guidelines
codified into law, incentives to reward organizations for taking action to prevent misconduct
any purposeful communication that deceives, manipulates, or conceals facts in order to create a false impression
standardized contracts to buy or sell a specified commodity of standardized quality at a certain date in the future, at a market determined price (the futures price)
perceived to lower carbon emissions and create less pollution; sources include anaerobic digestion or biomass, geothermal, wind, small-scale hydropower, solar, and tidal power
hostile work environment
work environment that meets the following criteria: unwelcome conduct; conduct that is severe, pervasive, and regarded by the claimant as so hostile or offensive as to alter his or her conditions of employment; and conduct such that a reasonable person would find it hostile or offensive
buying or selling of company stocks by insiders; illegal insider trading involves the buying or selling of stocks by insiders who possess material that is still not public, whereas legal insider trading involves legally buying and selling stock by insiders, subject to timing and reporting constraints
the legal protection of intellectual properties such as music, books, and movies
an international treaty on climate change committed to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and five other greenhouse gases and to engaging in emissions trading
a type of advertising abuse in the form of claims that misrepresent the features or properties of a product or service
advertising claims that belong to one of two subcategories: tests prove (establishment claims), in which the advertisement cites a study or test that establishes the claim; and bald assertions (non-establishment claims), in which the advertisement makes a claim that cannot be substantiated
dishonest behavior that can take one of three forms: (1) statements that cause damage or harm; (2) a "white lie," which doesn't cause damage but can be called an excuse or something told to benefit someone else; and (3) statements that are obviously meant to engage or entertain with no malice
economist whose ideas were guiding principles for government policy making in the U.S., and increasingly throughout the world, starting in the second half of the 20th century; believed in deregulation and that the system could reach equilibrium without government intervention
the holding company for Moody's Investors Service, which performs financial research and analysis on commercial and government entities, as well as ranking the credit-worthiness of borrowers using a standardized ratings scale
the trade-off between equity (equality or fairness) and efficiency (maximum productivity)
an offense committed by the official who receives the bribe; not an offense, however, if the advantage was permitted or required by the written law or regulation of the foreign public official's country, including case law
using personal information—such as a child's name, birthdays and anniversaries, and Social Security numbers—to guess a password
requires that the hacker enter a facility personally to capture data, user names, and passwords
a fraudulent investment operation that pays returns to separate investors from their own money or money paid by subsequent investors, rather than from any actual profit earned; usually offers returns that other investments cannot guarantee in order to entice new investors, in the form of short-term returns that are either abnormally high or unusually consistent
issues that businesses must address include the monitoring of employees' use of available technology and consumer privacy
exaggerated advertising, blustering, and boasting upon which no reasonable buyer would rely and is not actionable under the Lanham Act
Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC)
a federally mandated non-profit corporation in the United States that protects securities investors from financial harm if a broker-dealer company fails
any repeated, unwanted behavior of a sexual nature perpetrated upon one individual by another; may be verbal, visual, written, or physical and can occur between people of different genders or those of the same sex
the tricking of individuals into revealing their passwords or other valuable corporate information
unethical dual relationship
a relationship that causes either a direct or indirect conflict of interest or a risk of impairment to professional judgment.
result of the dumping of raw sewage and toxic chemicals into rivers and oceans, from oil and gasoline spills, and from the burial of industrial wastes in the ground where they may filter into underground water supplies
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