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Anatomy and Physiology Exam 4
Terms in this set (197)
What are the primary functions of the skeletal system?
2. Storage of minerals and lipids
3. Blood cell production
What are the bone shapes?
1. Sutural (Wormian)
Describe the shape of a sutural (Wormian) bone.
Small, flat, irregular
Describe the shape of an irregular bone.
Complex and various.
Describe the shape of a short bone.
Describe the shape of a flat bone.
Describe the shape of a long bone.
Long and slender
Describe the shape of a sesamoid bone.
Small, round, flat
What makes up the structure of a long bone?
1. Diaphysis - Shaft.
- compact bone
- medullary cavity
2. Epiphysis - Wide part at each end.
- spongy bone
4. Blood vessels.
5. Medullary cavity.
-Periosteum and endosteum
Where is spongy bone found in long bones?
Where is spongy bone found in flat bones?
Between two layers of compact bone.
Define bone markings.
Bone markings (surface features) are characteristics of a bone's surface that have specific functions, such as joint formation, muscle attachment, or the passage of nerves and blood vessels.
Which three types of bone cells are developmentally related and what is their progression from the earliest to the latest stage?
An osteogenic cell divides to produce osteoblasts. Osteoblasts become osteocytes when they are completely surrounded by bone matrix.
Mature bone cells are known as ___, bone-building cells are called ___, and ___ are bone-resorbing cells.
Mature bone cells are known as osteocytes, bone-building cells are called osteoblasts, and osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells.
How would the compressive strength of a bone be affected if its ratio of collagen to hydroxyapatite increased?
If the ratio of collagen to hydroxyapatite in a bone increased, the bone would become less strong (as well as more flexible).
If the activity of osteoclasts exceeds the activity of osteoblasts in a bone, how will the mass of the bone be affected?
Because osteoclasts break down or demineralize bone, the bone would have a decreased mineral content (less mass); as a result, it would also be weaker.
In the bone matrix, calcium phosphate interacts with calcium hydroxide to form crystals of...
What are the characteristics of bone?
Osteocytes (bone cells) within lacunae organized around blood vessels-
Canaliculi •Exchange of nutrients, wastes, and gases-
Periosteum •Covers outer surfaces of bones (except at joints)
What percentage of bone mass is made up of collagen fibers?
What percentage of bone mass is made up of bone cells?
What are the bone cells?
What are the three ways in which lamellae are organized in compact bone?
Lamellae are organized concentrically around an osteon, interstitially between osteons, and circumferentially around the entire bone.
Select the correct words for the following sentence: The (endosteum/periosteum) covers the superficial layer of compact bone and is made up of (the fibrous and cellular layers/osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes).
The periosteum covers the superficial layer of compact bone and is made up of the fibrous and cellular layers.
Compare the structures and functions of compact bone and spongy bone.
Compact bone consists of osteons (Haversian systems) with little space between them. Compact bone lies over spongy bone and makes up most of the diaphysis. It functions to protect, support, and resist stress. Spongy bone consists of trabeculae with numerous red marrow-filled spaces. Spongy bone makes up most of the structure of short, flat, and irregular bones and is also found at the epiphyses of long bones. Spongy bone functions in storing marrow and providing some support.
A sample of long bone has lamellae, which are not arranged in osteons. Is the sample most likely taken from the epiphysis or diaphysis?
The presence of lamellae that are not arranged in osteons is indicative of spongy bone, which is located in an epiphysis.
In endochondral ossification, what is the original source of osteoblasts?
In endochondral ossification, cells of the inner layer of the perichondrium differentiate into osteoblasts, and a cartilage model is gradually replaced by bone.
During intramembranous ossification, which type of tissue is replaced by bone?
During intramembranous ossification, fibrous connective tissue is replaced by bone.
How could x-rays of the femur be used to determine whether a person has reached full height?
Long bones of the body, such as the femur, have an epiphyseal cartilage, a plate of cartilage that separates the epiphysis from the diaphysis so long as the bone is still growing lengthwise. An x-ray would indicate whether the epiphyseal cartilage is still present. If it is, growth is still occurring. If it is not, the bone has reached its adult length and, thus, the person has reached full height.
Describe bone remodeling.
Bone remodeling refers to the process whereby old bone is continuously being destroyed by osteoclasts while new bone is being constructed by osteoblasts.
Explain how heavy-metal ions could be incorporated into bone matrix.
The biochemistry of some heavy-metal ions, such as strontium, cobalt, uranium, and plutonium, is very similar to that of calcium. Osteoblasts cannot differentiate these heavy-metal ions from normal calcium ions, so the heavy-metal ions become incorporated into the bone matrix. Over time, these dangerous ions can be released into the bloodstream during normal bone remodeling.
A functional unit of compact bone
Layers of bone matrix.
What are the types of lamellae?
What is the function of perforating canals?
To carry blood vessels into deep bone and marrow.
Why would you expect the arm bones of a weight lifter to be thicker and heavier than those of a jogger?
The larger arm muscles of the weight lifter would apply more mechanical stress to the bones of the upper limbs. In response to that stress, the bones would grow thicker.
A child who enters puberty several years later than the average age is generally taller than average as an adult. Why?
Growth continues throughout childhood. At puberty, a growth spurt takes place and is followed by the closure of the epiphyseal cartilages. The later puberty begins, the taller the child will be when the growth spurt begins, so the taller the person will be when growth is completed.
A 7-year-old child has a pituitary gland tumor involving the cells that secrete growth hormone (GH), resulting in an increased level of GH. How will this condition affect the child's growth?
Increased levels of growth hormone prior to puberty will result in excessive bone growth, making the child taller.
What gland responds when the blood calcium level is too low?
The parathyroid gland secretes parathyroid hormone when the blood calcium level is too low.
Explain the role of PTH and the interaction between PTH and calcitriol on blood calcium ion level.
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) indirectly stimulates osteoclasts to release calcium ions from bone and enhances calcitriol's effect on the intestinalabsorption of calcium. Increased PTH secretion would result in an increase in the level of calcium ions in the blood.
Why does a child who has rickets have difficulty walking?
The bones of children who have rickets are poorly mineralized and as a result are quite flexible. Under the weight of the body, the leg bones bend. The instability makes walking difficult and can lead to other problems of the legs and feet.
List the four steps involved in fracture repair, beginning at the onset of the bone break.
Immediately following a fracture, extensive bleeding occurs at the injury site. After several hours, a large blood clot called a fracture hematoma develops. Next, an internal callus forms as a network of spongy bone unites the inner edges, and an external callus of cartilage and bone stabilizes the outer edges. The cartilaginous external callus is eventually replaced by bone, and the struts of new spongy bone now unite the broken ends. With time, the swelling that initially marks the location of the fracture is remodeled, new compact bone is formed, and there is little evidence that a break occurred.
At which point in fracture repair would you find an external callus?
An external callus forms early in the healing process, when cells from the endosteum and periosteum migrate to the area of the fracture. These cells form an enlarged collar (external callus) that encircles the bone in the area of the fracture.
Osteopenia is inadequate ossification and is common during the aging process. It results from decreasing osteoblast activity accompanied by normal osteoclast activity.
Why is osteoporosis more common in older women than in older men?
In women, the sex hormone known as estrogen plays an important role in moving calcium into bones. After menopause, the level of estrogen decreases dramatically. As a result, older women have difficulty replacing the calcium in bones that is being lost due to normal aging. In men, the level of testosterone does not decrease until much later in life.
Does spongy bone contain osteons?
No, it lacks osteons.
The matrix of spongy bone forms...
...an open network of trabeculae.
...capillaries and venules
Red bone marrow...
...fills spaces between trabeculae
•Forms blood cells
•Contains blood vessels that supply nutrients to osteocytes by diffusion
Yellow Bone Marrow
•Found in other sites of spongy bone
The membrane that covers the outside of bones.
What are the functions of the periosteum?
-Isolates bone from surrounding tissues
-Provides a route for blood vessels and nerves
-Participates in bone growth and repair
incomplete cellular layer that lines medullary cavity
What are some features of the endosteum?
-Active during bone growth, repair, and remodeling
-Covers trabeculae of spongy bone
-Lines central canals of compact bone
-Consists of flattened layer of osteogenic cells
Deposition of calcium salts
•Occurs during ossification
What are the two forms of ossification?
-How most bones form
-Primary ossification center develops inside hyaline cartilage
•Cartilage is gradually replaced by bone
-Seven main steps
Interstitial bone growth is growth in...
completion of epiphyseal growth
The width of ____________ reveals timing of endochondral ossification.
Appositional bone growth is growth in...
What are some features of appositional growth?
-Thickens and strengthens long bones
-Layers of circumferential lamellae are added at outer surface
•Deepest layers become replaced by osteons
During this process, osteoclasts slowly remove bone matrix at inner surface of bone
-Enlarging medullary cavity
What are some features of interstitial bone growth?
-Secondary ossification centers develop
-Epiphyseal closure—completion of epiphyseal growth
-Also called dermalossification (because it occurs in the dermis)
-Produces dermal bones such as mandible (lower jaw) and clavicles (collarbones)
-Five main steps
Bone remodeling occurs throughout...
Osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts are all involved in the process of...
In bone remodeling, if removal is faster than replacement, bones ___________, while if deposition predominates, bones ____________.
What are some effects of exercise on bone?
-Mineral recycling allows bones to adapt to stress
-Heavily stressed bones become thicker and stronger
-Weight-bearing exercise, stimulates osteoblasts
How much bone mass can be lost in a few weeks of inactivity?
Up to 1/3rd
What minerals are required in your diet for healthy bones?
•Calcium and phosphorus
•Small amounts of magnesium, fluoride, iron, and manganese
Where is calcitriol made?
In the kidneys.
Calcitriol and vitamin D3 are essential for normal ___________ and __________________ absorption in the digestive track.
Calcium, phosphate ion
What vitamin is required for collagen synthesis?
What vitamin stimulates osteoblast differentiation?
What vitamin stimulates osteoblast activity?
What vitamins are required for synthesis of bone proteins?
Vitamins K and B12.
Growth hormone and thyroxine...
...stimulate bone growth.
What maintains calcium ion homeostasis?
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
Which sex hormones stimulate osteoblasts?
Estrogen and testosterone
How much of the body's calcium is stored in the bones?
What affects the storage, absorption, and excretion of calcium ions in the bones, digestive track, and kidneys?
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
The parathyroid hormone (PTH) increases blood calcium levels by...
•Stimulating osteoclast activity (indirectly)
•Increasing intestinal absorption of calcium by enhancing calcitriol secretion by kidneys
•Decreasing calcium excretion by kidneys
Where is the parathyroid hormone (PTH) produced?
In the parathyroid glands in neck.
Calcitonin decreases blood calcium ion levels by...
•Inhibiting osteoclast activity
•Increasing calcium excretion and reducing calcitriol secretion by kidneys
•Decreasing intestinal absorption of calcium
What are the major types of fractures?
What are open fractures referred to as?
What are closed fractures referred to as?
What are the steps of repair in a fracture?
1. Hematoma Formation
2. Callus Formation
3. Spongy Bone Formation
4. Compact Bone Formation
inadequate ossification (reduction of bone mass)
What bones are affected the most by osteopenia?
Epiphyses, vertebrae, and jaws are most affected
severe loss of bone mass
Cancerous tissues release...
•Produces severe osteoporosis
Where two bones meet
What is the tradeoff for joints?
With greater strength is less mobility, with greater mobility is less strength
If a joint is more mobile, it is less...
If a joint is more strong, it is less...
What are the two classification schemes of joints?
Structural and functional
What are the structural classifications of joints?
What are the four types of synarthrosis (immovable joints)?
What are the two types of ampiarthrosis?
Describe synovial joints.
It has a fibrous joint capsule that contains a synovial membrane.
Synovial fluid fills the synovial membrane.
What are the primary functions of synovial fluid?
Synovial fluid contains...
Synovial joints are stabilized by what accessory structures?
-Cartilages and fat pads
Movements at the synovial joint are described in terms that reflect the...
-Plane or direction of movement
-Relationship between structures
What are the planes of movement for synovial joints?
A joint that permits movement around one axis is called...
A joint that permits movement aroundtwo axes is called...
A joint that permits movement around three axes, is called...
What are the rotational movements of synovial joints?
Rotation to palm down
Rotation to palm up
What are the types of movement at synovial joints?
Rotating in a full circle on a fixed point
Think of moving a pencil linearly
Think of flexion, extension, and hyperextension
Rotating head left to right, rotating forearm up and down
Movement away from the midline of the body
Movement towards the midline of the body
What are the special movements of synovial joints?
Rotate ankle/foot laterally
Rotate ankle/foot medially
Flexion at the ankle
Extension at the ankle
Moving thumb in towards pinky
Jutting jaw out
Pulling jaw back in
Ears to shoulders
What are the classifications of synovial joints?
-First two cervical vertebrae are joined by a synovial joint
-Synovial joints lie between adjacent articular processes
-Adjacent vertebral bodies form symphyses
Anulusfibrosus - Tough outer layer of fibrocartilage
Nucleus pulposus - Elastic, gelatinous core
Vertebral end plates of cartilage
What types of damage can be done to intervertebral discs?
•Bulge in anulus fibrosus
•Nucleus pulposus breaks through anulus fibrosus
Connects tips of spinous processes (C7 to sacrum)
Continuous with ligamentum nuchae (C7 to skull)
Connect spinous processes of adjacent vertebrae
Anterior Longitudal Ligaments
Connects anterior surfaces of vertebral bodies
Posterior Longitudal Ligaments
Connects posterior surfaces of vertebral bodies
Connect laminae of adjacent vertebrae
What do intervertebral ligaments do?
-Bind vertebrae together
-Stabilize the vertebral column
What happens as the vertebral column moves?
-Nucleus pulposus compresses
-Disc shape conforms to motion
What are the vertebral movements?
What type of joint is the elbow?
A hinge joint.
What are the joints of the elbow?
The humero-ulner joint (largest and strongest, limited movement) and the humeroradial joint (smaller joint)
What are the elbow ligaments?
What does the biceps brachii muscle attach to?
The radial tuberosity
What type of joint is the knee joint?
A complex hinge joint
What are the three articulations of the knee joint?
•Two femur-tibia articulations
•One between patella and patellar surface of femur
What are the seven major supporting ligaments in the knee?
1. Patellar ligament (anterior)
2. & 3.Two popliteal ligaments (posterior)
4. & 5.Anterior and posterior cruciate
ligaments(inside joint capsule)
6. & 7.Tibial collateral ligament (medial) and fibular collateral ligament (lateral)
Shoulder Joint (Glenohumeral joint)
Joint capsule and joint cavity of knee
Medial and lateral menisci
Joint capsule and joint cavity of shoulder
Glenoidlabrum•Extends beyond bony rim and deepens socket of glenoid cavity-
Acromion and coracoid process of scapula•Project laterally, superior to humerus
-Strong ball-and-socket diarthrosis
-Wide range of motion
-Acetabular labrum•Increases depth of joint cavity
Where in the hands are condylar joints?
Radiocarpal joints and the knuckle joints (between metacrpal and phalanges)
Where in the hands are gliding joints?
Where in the hand is a saddle joint?
The base of the thumb (between metacrpal 1 and proximal phalanges)
Where in the hand are hinge joints?
Between the phalanges
Caused by wear and tear of joint surfaces, or genetic factors affecting collagen formation
Immune system attacks joint tissues
Crystals of uric acid form within synovial fluid
Disease marked by inflammation of the joints, muscles, or fibrous tissue
1) Can be caused from joint immobilization
2) Reduces the flow of synovial fluid
3) Can cause symptoms of arthritis
4) Can be treated by continuous passive motion (CPM)
As we age...
•Bone mass decreases
•Risk of fractures increases
Living bones undergo remodeling that involves...
Bone formation and bone recycling
What factors affect the balance between bone formation and recycling?
-Calcium and phosphorus uptake and excretion
-Genetic or environmental factors
___________ and ____________ systems provide calcium and phosphate minerals to bones for growth.
Digestive and urinary
____________ attach to bones.
Bones are controlled by the ___________ system.
The skeleton serves as a reserve for...
...calcium, phosphate, and other minerals.
What characteristics do typical synarthrotic and amphiarthrotic joints share?
oth synarthrotic joints (except synostoses) and amphiarthrotic joints consist of bony regions separated by fibrocartilage or cartilaginous connective tissue.
In a newborn, the large bones of the skull are joined by fibrous connective tissue. The bones later grow, interlock, and form immovable joints. Structurally, which type of joints are these?
Fiborous joints known as sutures
What structure covers the bony surfaces of a synovial joint to prevent the surfaces from touching?
Articular cartilage covers the bony surfaces of a synovial joint. The articular cartilage on each bony surface is separated by a thin layer of synovial fluid.
A dislocation is a complete loss of contact between the articulating surfaces within a joint.
List the various types of angular movements?
Angular movements include flexion/extension/hyperextension, abduction/adduction, and circumduction.
When doing jumping jacks, which lower limb movements are necessary?
When doing jumping jacks, you move your lower limbs away from the body's midline; this movement is abduction. When you bring the lower limbs back together, the movement is adduction.
What movements are associated with hinge joints?
Flexion and extension are the movements associated with hinge joints.
Within an intervertebral disc, which structure provides the tough outer layer of fibrocartilage and which structure provides the soft inner core for resiliency and shock absorption?
The annulus fibrosus provides the tough outer layer of fibrocartilage and the nucleus pulposus provides the soft inner core for resiliency and shock absorption.
What type of joint only permits slight movements?
The type of joint that only permits slight movements is an amphiarthrosis
Which regions of the vertebral column lack intervertebral discs? Explain why the absence of discs is significant.
Intervertebral discs are not found between the first and second cervical vertebrae, between sacral vertebrae in the sacrum, or between coccygeal vertebrae in the coccyx. An intervertebral disc between the first and second cervical vertebrae would prohibit rotation. The vertebrae in the sacrum and coccyx are fused to provide a firm attachment for muscles and ligaments.
Which vertebral movements are involved in (a) bending forward, (b) bending to the side, and (c) moving the head to signify "no"?
The vertebral movement involved in (a) bending forward is flexion. The movement involved in (b) bending to the side is lateral flexion. The movement involved in (c) moving the head to signify "no" is rotation.
Terry suffers an injury to his forearm and elbow. After the injury, he notices an unusually large degree of motion between the radius and the ulna at the elbow. Which ligament did Terry most likely damage?
Terry has most likely damaged his annular ligament.
What signs and symptoms would you expect in a person who has damaged the menisci of the knee joint?
Damage to the menisci of the knee joint decreases the joint's stability, so the person would have a difficult time locking the knee in place while standing and would have to use muscle contractions to stabilize the joint. If the person had to stand for a long time, the muscles would fatigue and the knee would "give out." It is also likely that the person would feel pain.
Why is "clergyman's knee" (a type of bursitis) common among carpet layers and roofers?
Like members of the clergy, carpet layers and roofers kneel a lot (and they also slide along on their knees), causing inflammation of the bursae in the knee joint.
Name the bones making up the knee joint.
The bones involved with the knee joint are the femur, tibia, and patella. The fibula is not part of the knee joint.
What two bones does the acromioclavicular ligament connect?
The acromioclavicular ligament connects the scapula (specifically, the acromion of the scapula) and the clavicle.
Which tissues or structures provide most of the stability for the shoulder joint?
Ligaments and muscles provide most of the stability for the shoulder joint.
Would a tennis player or a jogger be more likely to develop inflammation of the subscapular bursa? Why?
The subscapular bursa is located in the shoulder joint, so the tennis player would be more likely to develop inflammation of this structure (bursitis). The condition is associated with repetitive motion that occurs at the shoulder, such as swinging a tennis racket. The jogger would be more at risk for injuries to the knee joint.
A football player received a hit to the upper surface of his shoulder, causing a shoulder separation. What does this mean?
A shoulder separation is an injury involving partial or complete dislocation of the acromioclavicular joint.
Name the bones making up the shoulder joint.
The bones making up the shoulder joint are the humerus and scapula.
At what site are the iliofemoral ligament, pubofemoral ligament, and ischiofemoral ligament located?
The iliofemoral, pubofemoral, and ischiofemoral ligaments are at the hip joint.
Explain why there must be a balance between osteoclast activity and osteoblast activity.
Osteoblast activity must equal osteoclast activity or else the integrity of bone structure is compromised. For example, if osteoclast activity outpaces osteoblast activity, the result is thin, brittle bones.
What category of joints is likely to be affected by juvenile rheumatoid arthritis?
Only diarthroses, or synovial joints, are affected by juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. This is a disease of the synovial lining, so it does not affect joints that have no synovial membrane
Bones replace existing cartilage
Bone develops directly from mesenchyme or fibrous connective tissue
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