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ABNORMAL EXAM II
Terms in this set (33)
This is responsible for coordinating messaging for the midbrain and prefrontal. It is normally UP and DOWN in activity in depressed individuals.
This controls the executive function, meaning that it acts like a conductor communicating, guiding, and coordinating the functions of the different parts of the brain. It is normally REDUCED in activity in depressed individuals.
This is the alarm system for strong emotional cues that pull your attention. It is normally INCREASED in activity in depressed individuals.
This handles the long term memory and regulates emotions. It is normally REDUCED in activity in depressed individuals.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)
This is a noninvasive brain stimulation with electromagnets and is used for treatment resistant depression.
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)
(Was known as shock treatment) These are used in treatment resistant MDD and is effective in 50% of cases but it is very invasive and can cause brief seizures and some people have reported difficulty in recalling long term memory.
Bipolar I Disorder
This is a form of bipolar disorder in which full symptoms of mania are experienced; depressive aspects may be more infrequent or mild
Bipolar II Disorder
Individuals experience severe episodes of depression that meet the criteria for major depression but their episodes of mania are milder (hypomania).
This is a milder but more chronic form of bipolar disorder that consists of alternation between hypomanic episodes and mild depressive episodes over a period of at least two weeks.
Being persecuted, watched, conspired against
Random events are directed at oneself
Great power, knowledge, talent, or is a famous/powerful person
Guilt or Sin
Committed a terrible act or responsible for a terrible event
Appearance or part of body is diseased, altered
Thoughts, feelings, behaviors are being imposed, controlled by an external force
This is unreal perceptual experiences and people with this tend to be more frequent, persistent, complex, sometimes more bizarre, and often entwined with delusions. These are categorized as a POSITIVE symptoms. They can be auditory and visual.
ex. A woman hearing a voice telling her that she is worthless and that she should shut up.
These are ideas that the individual believes are true but that are highly unlikely and often simply impossible. Cultural relativism is important to consider when diagnosing delusions. These are categorized as a POSITIVE symptoms.
ex. The government is coming after me because I have special information. Someone scooped out my brain and replaced it with oatmeal.
Loose associations, derailment, word salad
This is one of the most common forms of DISORGANIZATION in schizophrenia and its the tendency to slip from one topic to a seemingly unrelated topic with little coherent transition.
This is DISORGANIZED behavior that reflects unresponsiveness to the environment. This ranges from a lack of response to instructions
This refers to a severe reduction in or absence of emotional expression in people with schizophrenia. People with schizophrenia show fewer facial expressions of emotion, may avoid eye contact and are less likely to use gestures to communicate emotional information than people without the disorder. This is categorized as NEGATIVE.
This is an inability to initiate or persist at common, goal-directed activities, including those at work, at school, and at home. The person is physically slowed down in his or her movements and seems unmotivated. This is categorized as NEGATIVE.
This does NOT mean multiple personalities! This is the most common psychotic disorder and the most complex with psychosis as its core diagnostic symptom
The three main types that they come in which are POSITIVE, NEGATIVE and DISORGANIZED.
These are characterized by the presence of unusual perceptions, though or behaviors. Positive refers to the fact that symptoms are salient, added experiences.
-Positive symptoms are characterized by the presence of unusual perceptions, thoughts, or behaviors.
-The word positive refers to the fact that the symptoms are salient, added experiences. Positive mean: normal perceptual experience + something else
-Positive symptoms include delusions (weird thoughts and perceptions) and Hallucinations (see or hear something that is not there)
These involve the loss of certain qualities of the person, rather than behaviors or thoughts that the person expresses overtly. There are three types of negative symptoms:
-Affective flattening is when there is a severe reduction in, or complete absence of overt emotional responses. (blunted affect or non-emotional responses to the environment)
-There's also Alogia which is a poverty of speech, reduction in speaking; person may not initiate speech with others and when asked direct questions may give empty or very brief replies
-There's also avolition which is an inability to persist at common, goal-directed activities. Person has trouble completing tasks, careless, completely unmotivated
The disorganized thinking of people with schizophrenia is often referred to as a formal thought disorder.
The prodromal phase
this includes the changes that a person experiences before the onset of psychotic symptoms. Friends and family can generally recognize this time period because there is a marked change in functioning. Can include withdrawal, sometimes depressive symptoms, mainly negative symptoms.
The acute phase
is when active psychosis is occurring. Positive symptoms in addition to negative symptoms are typical during this phase. These are the symptoms that must be present for at least one month to meet diagnostic criteria (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior, and negative symptoms).
The residual phase
is when the active psychosis has died down. This generally happens when the acute phase is being treated with medication. Negative symptoms still tend to persist during this phase
This disorder is a mix of schizophrenia and a mood disorder.
This disorder requires that individuals meet criteria A, D, and E for schizophrenia but show symptoms that last only 1 to 6 months.
Brief psychotic disorder
Individuals with this disorder show a sudden onset of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, and/or disorganized behavior.
Individuals with this disorder have delusions lasting at least one mont regarding situations that occur in real life, such as being followed, being poisoned, being deceived by a spouse, or having a disease. Unlike schizophrenia, they do not show any other psychotic symptoms.
a process in which components of mental experience are split off from consciousness but remain accessible through dreams and hypnosis.
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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