measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; scale ranges from 0-14; 7 is neutral; above 7 = basic, below 7 = acidic
bonds between atoms are formed or broken, causing substances to combine and recombine as different molecules
chemical reactions that occur within an organism
a notation used by chemists to express technical facts in chemistry
the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of the element
center of an atom; made of protons and neutrons
postiviely charged particles
particles that have no charge
negatively charged particles that form a cloud around the nucleus
building blocks of protein molecules
requires more heat to increase its temperature than other sustances because it resists changes in temperature
one of the few substances that expands when it freezes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
net, random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, eventually resulting in even distribution
concentration, temperature and pressure
key factors that effect the rate of diffusion
an increase in these can speed up the process of diffusion
continuous movement but no overall concentration change
a carbon compound that comes from living things
a scale ( with numbers 0 -14) that messures how acidic or basic a soloution is
when these occur bonds between atoms are formed or borken; happens when substances combine and recombine and make new substances
the formula of a chemical substance
structure of an atom
all atoms have the same general arrangement; the center is called the nucleus and this is made up of protrons and nuetrons
building blocks of protiens
important proprties of water
its polar, it can resist change in tempature, it expnads when it freezes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
What is the energy level of electrons?
the movement of particles from an area of higher concetration to an area of lower concetration
diffusion of water across a selectivly permeable memebrane depending on the concetration of solutes on either side of the membrane
1. compound light microscopes- this type of microscope uses a series of lenses to magnify objects in steps; can magnify things up to 1500 times. 2. electrom microscope- uses a beam of electrons to magnify structures up to 500,000 times
unicelluar organsims composed of prokaryotic cells; which have no nucles
multicelluar organsim; they have a nucleus
manin ideas of cell theory
1. All orgnasims are composed of 1 or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of orgnization or organsisms. 3. All cells come from prexsisting cells.
the boundary between the cell and its enviroment, to allow a steady supply of these nutrients to come into the cell no matter the external conditions
firm and rigid protective structure located outside the plasma membrane
plant cells V.S. animal cells
plant cells have: a cell wall, animals cells dont. plant cells have cell wall and membrane while a animal cell only has a cell memebrane plant cells have chloplast animal cells dont Animal cells are round & plant cells are rectangluar
organelle that manages all cell functions
a soloution; in this the concentration of disoloved substances in the soloution is the same as the concentation of disoloved substances in the cell
soloution in which the concentration of disolved substances is lower in the solution outside of the cell than the concetration inside the cell
soloution when the concetration of disolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concetration inside the cell
the movement of particles across a memebrane by duffision
movement of matereals through a memebrane aginst the concentration gradient
sequence of growth and division within a cell. 1.) G1 2.) s Stage 3.) G2 4.) mitosis
majority of cells life spent in this stage; durring this a cell grows in size and chrosomes are duplicated to prepare for division
process by which 2 daughter cells are formed and each contain a complete set of chrosomes
phase of mitiosis when the chromitin coils up into visible chrosomes
phase of mitosis when the chrosomes move to the equator of the spendle
phase of mitosis when the centromeres split and the sister chromitids are pulled to the oppsite poles of the cell
phase of mitosis when two distinct daughter cells are formed
energy molecule; composed of an adenosine molecule with 3 phosphate groups attached
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
the most commont pigiment in chlorplast
light- dependent reaction
reaction that converts light energy into chemical energy
light- independent reaction
energy from light-dependent reactions is used to produce glucose and additional ATP molecules
the process by which mitochondria beak down food molecules to produce ATP (energy)
your body needs this to move things throughout your body; an example of this is that your body needs this to move molecules in your kidney
orgnasims regluation of internal body tempture
series of reactions that use carbon dioxcide to make carbohydrates
Mendel's Law of Segeration
explaning that because each plant has 2 different allels, it can produce 2 different types of gametes. Durring fertlization male & female gametes randomly pair to produce 4 combonations of alleles
type of cell division where one body cell produces 4 gametes; each contain half the number of chrosomes as the parent body cell
fusion of male and female gametes
extchange of genetic materiales between nonsister chromatids from homologous chrosomes durring prophase 1 of meosis; resluts in new allel combonation
the resluting cell when a sperm cell fertlizes and egg
segement of DNA that contols the protien production and the cell cycle
What would be nutral on the pH scale?
because the random movement of particles; which is called the Browinan motion
What causes diffusion ?
protrons and neutrons
What two things does the nucleus of an atom contain?
because its polar
Why is water able to dissolve many ionic and molecular compoumds ?
Diffusion continues until there is no ________ _______.
because they do not have a nucleus
Why is bacteria classfied as a prokaryote?
1. increces surface area 2. forms internal compartments 3.makes cell processes more efficent
How are folded membranes an adavntage to a cell?
Because the phospholipid molecules and some protiens are free to move the plasma membrane is said to be a _______________.
electron microsocpes can magnify up to 500,000 times; & they can see structures inside cells with electron microsocpes
What is one advantage of electron micoscopes over light microsocpes ?
A cells contents would be the same as its surroundings, were it not for its ___________ _____________.
Water moves into a cell placed in a ________ solution.
Water moves out of a cell placed in a ________ solution.
volume ; surface area
As a cell grows its ______ increces more than its ______ _________.
the plasma membrane
What is the structure most responsible for mantaning homeostasis within a cell?
Durring which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell?
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
What is a chromatid attached to the spindle fiber by?
In which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids seprate?
What is the main energy-trapping molecule in plants?
phosphate & adenosine
Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between _________ & __________.
In respiration, what is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?
What is one way that organisms get energy from food without using oxygen?
carbon dioxcide and water
What are the waste products of respiration?
How would you discribe an organism that has the genotype Tt?
What is the passing on of traits from parents to offspring?
What is the gamete called that only comes from the mother?
Would a female gamete (egg) be haploid or diploid?
by its physical traits
How can a dogs phenotype be determined?
What are alternate forms of a gene called?
the transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of the flower
What is pollination?
What is the key feature in DNA that allows it to be copied?
In what process is messenger RNA formed ?
An RNA molecule is a polymer composed of subunits known as ________.
What is the process in which DNA is copied?
A) burning paper
Which of these is a chemical reaction A) burning paper B) picking up iron filllings with a magnet C) Mixing Sugar & water?
What are the basic bulding blocks of protiens ?
What type of substance are the enzymes in our bodies?
Carbon12, Carbon13, & Carbon14 are what?
Which of the following orgnisims do not have cell walls; a) animals b) bacteria c) fungi d) plants