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measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; scale ranges from 0-14; 7 is neutral; above 7 = basic, below 7 = acidic
bonds between atoms are formed or broken, causing substances to combine and recombine as different molecules
requires more heat to increase its temperature than other sustances because it resists changes in temperature
net, random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, eventually resulting in even distribution
when these occur bonds between atoms are formed or borken; happens when substances combine and recombine and make new substances
structure of an atom
all atoms have the same general arrangement; the center is called the nucleus and this is made up of protrons and nuetrons
important proprties of water
its polar, it can resist change in tempature, it expnads when it freezes
the movement of particles from an area of higher concetration to an area of lower concetration
diffusion of water across a selectivly permeable memebrane depending on the concetration of solutes on either side of the membrane
1. compound light microscopes- this type of microscope uses a series of lenses to magnify objects in steps; can magnify things up to 1500 times. 2. electrom microscope- uses a beam of electrons to magnify structures up to 500,000 times
manin ideas of cell theory
1. All orgnasims are composed of 1 or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of orgnization or organsisms. 3. All cells come from prexsisting cells.
the boundary between the cell and its enviroment, to allow a steady supply of these nutrients to come into the cell no matter the external conditions
plant cells V.S. animal cells
plant cells have: a cell wall, animals cells dont.
plant cells have cell wall and membrane while a animal cell only has a cell memebrane
plant cells have chloplast animal cells dont
Animal cells are round & plant cells are rectangluar
a soloution; in this the concentration of disoloved substances in the soloution is the same as the concentation of disoloved substances in the cell
soloution in which the concentration of disolved substances is lower in the solution outside of the cell than the concetration inside the cell
soloution when the concetration of disolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concetration inside the cell
majority of cells life spent in this stage; durring this a cell grows in size and chrosomes are duplicated to prepare for division
phase of mitosis when the centromeres split and the sister chromitids are pulled to the oppsite poles of the cell
light- independent reaction
energy from light-dependent reactions is used to produce glucose and additional ATP molecules
your body needs this to move things throughout your body; an example of this is that your body needs this to move molecules in your kidney
Mendel's Law of Segeration
explaning that because each plant has 2 different allels, it can produce 2 different types of gametes. Durring fertlization male & female gametes randomly pair to produce 4 combonations of alleles
type of cell division where one body cell produces 4 gametes; each contain half the number of chrosomes as the parent body cell
extchange of genetic materiales between nonsister chromatids from homologous chrosomes durring prophase 1 of meosis; resluts in new allel combonation
because the random movement of particles; which is called the Browinan motion
What causes diffusion ?
1. increces surface area 2. forms internal compartments 3.makes cell processes more efficent
How are folded membranes an adavntage to a cell?
Because the phospholipid molecules and some protiens are free to move the plasma membrane is said to be a _______________.
electron microsocpes can magnify up to 500,000 times; & they can see structures inside cells with electron microsocpes
What is one advantage of electron micoscopes over light microsocpes ?
A cells contents would be the same as its surroundings, were it not for its ___________ _____________.
phosphate & adenosine
Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between _________ & __________.
A) burning paper
Which of these is a chemical reaction A) burning paper B) picking up iron filllings with a magnet C) Mixing Sugar & water?
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