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103 terms

GACS lclab Biology - Spring Final - Townsend

GACS lclab Biology - Spring Final - Townsend
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organic compounds
carbon/compounds in living things
pH scale
measure of how acidic or basic a solution is; scale ranges from 0-14; 7 is neutral; above 7 = basic, below 7 = acidic
chemical reactions
bonds between atoms are formed or broken, causing substances to combine and recombine as different molecules
metabolism
chemical reactions that occur within an organism
chemical formula
a notation used by chemists to express technical facts in chemistry
atom
the smallest particle of an element that has the characteristics of the element
nucleus
center of an atom; made of protons and neutrons
protons
postiviely charged particles
neutrons
particles that have no charge
electrons
negatively charged particles that form a cloud around the nucleus
amino acids
building blocks of protein molecules
water
requires more heat to increase its temperature than other sustances because it resists changes in temperature
water
one of the few substances that expands when it freezes
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
diffusion
net, random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, eventually resulting in even distribution
concentration, temperature and pressure
key factors that effect the rate of diffusion
temperature, pressure
an increase in these can speed up the process of diffusion
dynamic equilibrium
continuous movement but no overall concentration change
organic compounds
a carbon compound that comes from living things
pH scale
a scale ( with numbers 0 -14) that messures how acidic or basic a soloution is
chemical reactions
when these occur bonds between atoms are formed or borken; happens when substances combine and recombine and make new substances
chemical formula
the formula of a chemical substance
structure of an atom
all atoms have the same general arrangement; the center is called the nucleus and this is made up of protrons and nuetrons
building blocks of protiens
amino acids
important proprties of water
its polar, it can resist change in tempature, it expnads when it freezes
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
What is the energy level of electrons?
positive
diffusion
the movement of particles from an area of higher concetration to an area of lower concetration
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectivly permeable memebrane depending on the concetration of solutes on either side of the membrane
microscopes
1. compound light microscopes- this type of microscope uses a series of lenses to magnify objects in steps; can magnify things up to 1500 times. 2. electrom microscope- uses a beam of electrons to magnify structures up to 500,000 times
prokaryote
unicelluar organsims composed of prokaryotic cells; which have no nucles
eukaryote
multicelluar organsim; they have a nucleus
manin ideas of cell theory
1. All orgnasims are composed of 1 or more cells. 2. The cell is the basic unit of orgnization or organsisms. 3. All cells come from prexsisting cells.
plasma membrane
the boundary between the cell and its enviroment, to allow a steady supply of these nutrients to come into the cell no matter the external conditions
cell wall
firm and rigid protective structure located outside the plasma membrane
plant cells V.S. animal cells
plant cells have: a cell wall, animals cells dont.
plant cells have cell wall and membrane while a animal cell only has a cell memebrane
plant cells have chloplast animal cells dont
Animal cells are round & plant cells are rectangluar
nucleus
organelle that manages all cell functions
isotonic
a soloution; in this the concentration of disoloved substances in the soloution is the same as the concentation of disoloved substances in the cell
hypotonic soloution
soloution in which the concentration of disolved substances is lower in the solution outside of the cell than the concetration inside the cell
hypertonic soloution
soloution when the concetration of disolved substances outside the cell is higher than the concetration inside the cell
passive transport
the movement of particles across a memebrane by duffision
active transport
movement of matereals through a memebrane aginst the concentration gradient
cell cycle
sequence of growth and division within a cell. 1.) G1 2.) s Stage 3.) G2 4.) mitosis
interphase
majority of cells life spent in this stage; durring this a cell grows in size and chrosomes are duplicated to prepare for division
mitosis
process by which 2 daughter cells are formed and each contain a complete set of chrosomes
prophase
phase of mitiosis when the chromitin coils up into visible chrosomes
metaphase
phase of mitosis when the chrosomes move to the equator of the spendle
anapahse
phase of mitosis when the centromeres split and the sister chromitids are pulled to the oppsite poles of the cell
telophase
phase of mitosis when two distinct daughter cells are formed
ATP
energy molecule; composed of an adenosine molecule with 3 phosphate groups attached
photosynthesis
6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
chlorphyll
the most commont pigiment in chlorplast
light- dependent reaction
reaction that converts light energy into chemical energy
light- independent reaction
energy from light-dependent reactions is used to produce glucose and additional ATP molecules
respiration
the process by which mitochondria beak down food molecules to produce ATP (energy)
energy
your body needs this to move things throughout your body; an example of this is that your body needs this to move molecules in your kidney
homeostasis
orgnasims regluation of internal body tempture
calvin cycle
series of reactions that use carbon dioxcide to make carbohydrates
Mendel's Law of Segeration
explaning that because each plant has 2 different allels, it can produce 2 different types of gametes. Durring fertlization male & female gametes randomly pair to produce 4 combonations of alleles
meiosis
type of cell division where one body cell produces 4 gametes; each contain half the number of chrosomes as the parent body cell
fertlization
fusion of male and female gametes
crossing over
extchange of genetic materiales between nonsister chromatids from homologous chrosomes durring prophase 1 of meosis; resluts in new allel combonation
zygote
the resluting cell when a sperm cell fertlizes and egg
genes
segement of DNA that contols the protien production and the cell cycle
7
What would be nutral on the pH scale?
because the random movement of particles; which is called the Browinan motion
What causes diffusion ?
protrons and neutrons
What two things does the nucleus of an atom contain?
because its polar
Why is water able to dissolve many ionic and molecular compoumds ?
concetration gradient
Diffusion continues until there is no ________ _______.
because they do not have a nucleus
Why is bacteria classfied as a prokaryote?
1. increces surface area 2. forms internal compartments 3.makes cell processes more efficent
How are folded membranes an adavntage to a cell?
fluid mosiac
Because the phospholipid molecules and some protiens are free to move the plasma membrane is said to be a _______________.
electron microsocpes can magnify up to 500,000 times; & they can see structures inside cells with electron microsocpes
What is one advantage of electron micoscopes over light microsocpes ?
selective permiabality
A cells contents would be the same as its surroundings, were it not for its ___________ _____________.
hypertonic
Water moves into a cell placed in a ________ solution.
hypotonic
Water moves out of a cell placed in a ________ solution.
volume ; surface area
As a cell grows its ______ increces more than its ______ _________.
the plasma membrane
What is the structure most responsible for mantaning homeostasis within a cell?
metaphase
Durring which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell?
interphase
What is the longest phase of the cell cycle?
a centromere
What is a chromatid attached to the spindle fiber by?
prophase
In which phase of mitosis do the sister chromatids seprate?
chlorphyll
What is the main energy-trapping molecule in plants?
phosphate & adenosine
Energy is released from ATP when the bond is broken between _________ & __________.
oxygen
In respiration, what is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain?
photosynthesis
What is one way that organisms get energy from food without using oxygen?
carbon dioxcide and water
What are the waste products of respiration?
dominant ?
How would you discribe an organism that has the genotype Tt?
heredity
What is the passing on of traits from parents to offspring?
egg
What is the gamete called that only comes from the mother?
haploid
Would a female gamete (egg) be haploid or diploid?
by its physical traits
How can a dogs phenotype be determined?
allels
What are alternate forms of a gene called?
the transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of the flower
What is pollination?
nitrogen bases
What is the key feature in DNA that allows it to be copied?
transcrption
In what process is messenger RNA formed ?
nueclotides
An RNA molecule is a polymer composed of subunits known as ________.
DNA replication
What is the process in which DNA is copied?
A) burning paper
Which of these is a chemical reaction A) burning paper B) picking up iron filllings with a magnet C) Mixing Sugar & water?
amino acids
What are the basic bulding blocks of protiens ?
protiens
What type of substance are the enzymes in our bodies?
isotopes
Carbon12, Carbon13, & Carbon14 are what?
animals
Which of the following orgnisims do not have cell walls; a) animals b) bacteria c) fungi d) plants