Friedland Flashback

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Atom
Smallest particle of an element
Element
A pure substance made of only one kind of atom
Molecule
A group of atoms bonded together
Compound
A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Mass Number
the sum of the number of neutrons and protons in an atomic nucleus
Isotopes
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Radioactive Decay
The breakdown of a radioactive element, releasing particles and energy
Half Life
Length of time required for half of the radioactive atoms in a sample to decay
Covalent Bonds
sharing of electrons
Ionic Bond
Formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
Polar Molecule
A molecule that has electrically charged areas.
Acid
A substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Base
A substance that decreases the hydrogen ion concentration in a solution.
Law of Conservation Matter
matter can not be created or destroyed, only changed
Inorganic Compound
a compound that does not have both hydrogen and carbon
Organic Compound
Compounds that contain carbon
Electromagnetic Radiation
a kind of radiation including visible light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays, in which electric and magnetic fields vary simultaneously.
Potential Energy
stored energy
Kinetic Energy
The energy of motion
Joule
The SI unit of energy
Power
the rate at which work is done or energy is transformed
First Law of Thermodynamics
the branch of physical science that deals with the relations between heat and other forms of energy (such as mechanical, electrical, or chemical energy), and, by extension, of the relationships between all forms of energy
Second Law of Thermodynamics
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that the state of entropy of the entire universe, as an isolated system, will always increase over time. The second law also states that the changes in the entropy in the universe can never be negative.
Energy Efficiency
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
Energy Quality
A measure of an energy's source's ability to do useful work.
Negative Feedback loop
Causes a system to change in the opposite direction from which it is moving
Positive Feedback loop
Causes a system to change further in the same direction.