Community Health Organization Midterm
Terms in this set (62)
Which of the following statements characterizes an important difference between public health and most other professions
1 Education and training beyond the undergraduate (college) level is not available for public health
2 Large professional organizations do not exist for public health
3 Public health professionals work only in the public sector
4 Although they come from many professions and disciplines, their common bond is not one of a shared body of knowledge or academic preparation, but a commitment to the goal of improved population health
In which form of justice are collective actions leading to the assumption of additional burdens often necessary in order to assure the fair distribution of societal benefits
1 market justice
2 judicial justice
3 social justice
4 individual justice
Public health was characterized as fulfilling society's interest in assuring conditions in which people could be healthy by
1 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Healthy People 2020
2 Institute of Medicine in The Future of Public Health
3 C.E.A. Winslow
4 Sir Geoffrey Vickers
Introduction of smallpox vaccination is credited to which of these individuals
Which of these statements regarding trends in life expectancy and infant mortality rates in the United States is False?
1 The percentage of improvement in life expectancy at birth was greater than the percentage improvement in infant mortality rates between 1900 and 2000.
2 The percentage of improvement in life expectancy at age 65 was greater than the percentage improvement in life expectancy at birth between 1950 and 2000.
3 The U.S. infant mortality rate decline be more than 90% between 1900 and 2000.
4 Life expectancy at age 65 improved by more than 25% between 1950 and 2000.
What are the public health activities that should be undertaken in all communities?
1. Essential Public Heath functions (or services)
2. Preventive services
3. Core functions
4. Health protection
Which of these domains of determinants is included in the social-ecological model of determinants of health?
1. Living and working conditions
2. Social, family, and community networks
3. Individual behavior
4. All of these options are included.
The cholera epidemic of 1854 disproportionately affected lower social classes in London.
The Institue of Medicine (IOM) landmark report, The Future of Public Health, established recommendations for a new way of organizing public health activities around three core public health functions: assessment, policy development, and assurance.
Age-adjusted mortality rates for heart disease and stroke declined by more than 50% between 1950 and 2000.
Which two lifestyle factors are the most important causes of preventable mortality in the United States?
1. Alcohol and obesity
2. Substance abuse and sexual activity
3. Stress and high blood pressure
4. Tobacco and diet/physical activity
A measure of health status that attempts to gauge the social impact of various diseases and conditions by adjusting for differences in the age of the population affected is:
1. years of potential life lost
2. crude mortality rate
3. prematurity rate
4. index of leading economic indicators
In 1900, the leading cause of death in the Unites States was which of the following conditions?
3. Typhoid fever
4. Pneumonia and influenza
The World Health Organization (WHO) definition of good human health includes:
1. physical and social well-being
2. mental and physical well-being
3. mental and social well-being
4. physical, mental and social well-being
A physician fills out a death certificate as follows: IMMEDIATE CAUSE OF DEATH pulmonary embolism DUE TO deep venous thrombosis DUE TO pancreatic cancer. She notes that a liver biopsy was performed prior to death. In the U.S. vital statistics, this death would be recorded as due to:
1. pulmonary embolism
2. deep venous thrombosis
3. pancreatic cancer
4. complication of liver biopsy
Which of the following is the best source of information on adult and infant mortality?
1. Disease registries
2. Vital statistics
3. Special survey studies
4. Hospice care statistics
In the United States, the national health promotion and disease prevention agenda is known as:
1. Health People
2. No Child Left Behind
3. Mothers' March
4. Red Cross
A measure of health status assigns to each period of time a weight, ranging from 0 to 1, corresponding to the health-related quality of life during that period. These weight values are then summed across time periods to calculate this measure. For each period, a weight of 1 corresponds to optimal health, and a weight of 0 corresponds to a health state equivalent to death. What is the measure?
2. Years of potential life lost
3. Quality-adjusted life-year
4. Risk-adjusted health outcomes
Which of these is not a goal of the Healthy People 2020 Initiative?
1. Promote quality of life, healthy development, and healthy behaviors across all life stages
2. Assure access to health services, including clinical and community preventive services, for all age groups
3. Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all
4. Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups
A scientifically established factor that relates directly to the level of the health problem is a:
2. Direct Contributing Factor
3. Indirect Contributing Factor
4. Health Problem Analysis
The total level of health expenditures for health and medical care services in the United States for 2015 is closest to which of these figures?
1. $900 million
2. $900 billion
3. $3.0 trillion
4. $7.5 trillion
Early detection of disease and interventions to reverse, halt, or at least slow the progression of a condition, often performed when disease is not yet symptomatic, is a description of:
1. primary prevention
2. secondary prevention
3. tertiary prevention
4. quaternary prevention
The approximate percentage of all health and medical care expenditures in the United States spent on clinical preventive and public health services is:
4. less than 5%
The two largest categories of national health expenditures in the United States are:
1. hospitals and nursing homes
2. physicians and hospitals
3. public health and physicians
4. hospitals and pharmaceuticals
Public health authorities argue that the current focus of the U.S. health system is on tertiary prevention. Such a focus would be most likely to produce which of the following outcomes?
1. Minimize overall prevalence of a disease or condition in the population
2. Minimize overall financial expenditure for treatment of a disease or condition
3. Minimize the cost of lost wages from a disease or condition
4. Minimize or delay morality from a disease or condition
Primary prevention can be defined as prevention efforts prior to the disease/injury.
Which is not a strategy directed toward health and illness?
1. Health Promotion
2. Media Advocacy
3. Specific Protection
Life expectancy in the U.S. is less than some other countries but has one of the highest health care spending per capita.
The government is not a stakeholder in the U.S. health care.
There is a link between public health and medicine.
The concept that government is responsible for ensuring that standards are met in every community developed with the 1979 revision of the Model Standards is referred to as:
1. primary care
2. coordinated delivery
3. governmental presence in health
4. eminent domain
All of the following are essential public health services that are components of the policy development core function except:
1. informing, educating and empowering people about health issues.
2. mobilizing community partnerships to identify and solve health problems.
3. developing policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts.
4. enforcing laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety.
The Institute of Medicine identified which level of government as the central force in public health, bearing primary public sector responsibility for the health of the people?
Surveys completed in 2012 and 2013 document that a higher percentage of state health departments had completed strategic plans in comparison to local health departments.
The majority of local health departments collaborate with local hospitals in completing community health needs assessments
S = Strengths
W = Weaknesses
O = Opportunities
T = Threats
What does SWOT stand for, in SWOT Analysis
Which is not a core function of Public Health.
2. Policy Development
All Public Health agencies must be accredited
The following are all components of the "Basic Six", but:
1. Maternal and Child Health
2. Non-Communicable Disease control
4. Vital Statistics
Cholera and water
Sanitation, poverty and PH
Paralelled Chadwick, sanitation and health depts
It organized responses to epidemics such as yellow fever in 1973 due to the imperialism and industrialization
Why did Philadelphia create the first board of health
Definitions of PH
The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort
successive re-defining's of the unacceptable
fulfilling societies interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy
Assessment, Policy level, and assurance; social-ecologic perspective (determinants of health), Social justice perspective (public matter and results reflect decisions), political nature (allows issues to be considered), Expanding agenda, link with government (policy), Grounded in Science ( 5 sciences), prevention, uncommon culture
Dimensions of the PH system
Heart disease, cancer, stroke, obstructive lung disease, unintentional injuries, diabetes, pneumonia, alzheimers, kidney disease
Leading causes of death past century
# of additional years of life expected at a specified point of time, such as at birth or at age 45 for example
total # of deaths per unit of population reported during a given time frame, deaths/ 1000 or 100000
years of potential life lost
Measure of the effect of a disease or injury in a population that calculates years of life lost before a specific age (usually 65 or 75). Places additional value on deaths that occur at earlier ages
Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, threats
Marine Service Hospital
earliest federal health unit, to serve merchant seamen and to prevent epidemics.
Types of Prevention
Primary, secondary, Tertiary
prevention of disease or injury).
identify and control disease in early stages, usually before signs and symptoms
prevent disability through restoring individuals to max. level of functioning
federal health agencies such as DHHS and its components
Health-related services represents more than ¼ of the total federal budget ( 2/3 Medicare and Medicaid)
Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
state health agencies, such as health departments and human service agencies
Health roles and duties often scattered among dozens of agencies
Many different configurations for state health agency (freestanding, unit, or larger health and human services agency, etc.)
Various duties depending on above
State Health Officer is designated by the Governor
local public health agencies, often called local health departments
Where the rubber meets the road
Established to carry out PH responsibilities that are in state laws and local ordinances to meet the needs of their communities
Most are formed at the county level
Often relate to state and federal agencies for funding and direction
Two basic arrangements
Decentralized: relate primarily to local government, although may also report to state health agency (Local Health Officers)
Centralized: a unit of the state health agency (DOH)
Core functions of PH
Assessment, Policy development, and assurance
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