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Charles Voysey Chair
Lighter than arts and crafts but not as extravagant as art nouveau
Same sentiments for Arts and Crafts movement in Great Britain. The backlash against poor quality of mass production in society. New Reason for style in England
Paris Store (1895)
Rebellion against tired historicism and forge a new form in keeping spirit with age
Fin de Siecle timeline (1880-1920)
-coke company in atl. ga
-1st electric elevator
-1st power station
-1st Kodak box camera
-Nintendo gaming co
-1st modern olympics
Characteristics that made Art Nouveau recognizable and distinctive
-rejection of Victorian style of history imitation
-close relation with fine arts
-decorative ornamentation based on nature
-willingness to embrace modern material and technology
-curvilinear and whiplash structural elements
Art Nouveau in different countries
-France: " le style modern"
-Italy: "la style liberty"
France and Belgium
Design is sinuous and fluid and based on foliage and marine life
Great Britain, Germany, Austria
More linear and geographical designs
How are designers inspired?
by the natural world, rococo aesthetic, Asian motifs, sensuous female form
Designers reinterpreted asymmetry, curving lines, stylized plant forms, and ormolu mounts of rococo furnishing
motif associated with art nouveau, long haired maiden
fixtures and detailing
details of gently curving carvings and detailed pieces= hinges and keyplates
natural world influenced often included into parts of furniture design
stylized versions of plants tendrils
Interior of Tassel House
-Complex curving stair with iron banister- curved elements continue on walls, ceiling and floors
- archway echoes whiplash curvature, support columns end with capitals that branch into bearing tendrils
The Nancy School: Emile Gaile (1846-1904)
believed "modernity, far from involvement stylistic nobility and self assertion is simply tailoring furniture to suit present needs"
The Nancy School: Louis Majorelle (1859-1926)
-trained as a painter before taking over family cabinet making business in 1879
-dedicated to furnishings full time and executing commission for Parisian restaurant in the Louis XV style that his father approved of
-Success of Emile encouraged Louis to discover more personal style- employed Art Nouveau to more traditional forms
Paris School: Euguene Gaillard (1862-1933)
-left carreer as lawyer-sculptor-I.D.
-worked with Siegfried Bing (owner of Parisian store "L'art Nouveau"
- "to put an undeniable artistic characteristic into the most humble object, the ord. piece of furniture"
-avoided direct figure representation believing that decoration should be "unreal"
Belgium: Victor Horta (1861-1947)
-Tassel House in Brussels (1892)= 1st true rt Nouveau
-Exterior= fairly conv with application of row houses, wall of windows, delicate iron work
Hotel Van Eetvelde (Horta)
-used iron frame work for exterior and slender iron columns for structural support and center of interior
-columns= open plan
-Horta Thinking= maximize daylight by covering façade with windows and glass dome in center of plan
-merged structure with decoration with plant like iron columns- spread tendrils
Hector Guimard (1867-1942)
-traveled to Belgium in 18949 to study with Horta and returned to meld French and Belgian Art Nouveau
-pioneer for industrial design and arch and IARC
-designed mantles, door trim, furniture and titles=reproduction for sale
Paris Metro Station (1900)
-Guimards most recognizable work
-each entrance= different size and shape and own identity and design elements
-glass roofs, signage and lighting fixtures
Scotland: Charles Rennie Mackintosh (1868-1928)
-Architect and Designer
-created the Glasgow style
-artist at Glasgow school of art
-design aesthetic= minimal and emphasizing the spatial effect of furniture- give poetic atmosphere in interiors
-chairs caught his attention (chair back higher=focus for designs)
- no concern with self with arts and crafts attention to craft, nature and decorative effects of wood
-sophisticated designs=structurally unsound
-bold straight lines and gentle curves
Castel Beranger (1894-1899)
-visited Horta's Tassel House=devoted self to Art Nouveau
-The exterior of the 6 story apartment building Castel Beranger is in contrast to its Art Nouveau style interior.
-hints of what is to come when you step through a columned archway into the vestibule-The columns may at first appear Romanesque, but their sinewy capitals and tendril detailing are anything but historic
The Four Macs
Herbert Macnair, Frances and Margaret Macdonald, Charles Mackintosh
-Mackintosh entered a competition for a new design for the firm for Glasgow SOA. Won.
-1st commission and most important building in his name
-combined hid influences, Scottish tradition (heavy masonry), Art Nouveau motifs (floral and geometrical iron work) and modern materials and technology
-2nd phase= 1907, altered circulating patterns and included the library
-1st phase= sense of proportion and detail combo with Scottish architecture and beginning of art nouveau
-2nd phase= deeper under of nouveau and japonisme
-May 2014= fire destroyed library, number of classroom studios and student work
-slide projector used by student, caught on fire and spread quickly
-firemen worked tirelessly to work on known building- retained great deal of structural integrity and will be restored in working order
Restyled Willow Tea Room (1896-1917)
-4 tea rooms that Charles and Margaret worked on
-given full responsibility on detail of interior layout and exterior treatment
-4 story warehouse on narrow site
-chose to design with a number of spaces with function and decoration
-1st floor=ladies tea room and general lunchroom
-2nd floor= wood lined billiards and smoking room for men
-ladies=meet with friends
-men= come over on break from office
-color usage: ladies- white, silver, rose. General- oak and grey front
Room de Luxe
-main attraction of tearoom
-front=long bay windows, vaulted ceiling, enter through glass double doors
-"a fantasy for afternoon tea" (intimate and richly decorated)
-pallets of grey, purple, and white with silver accents
-walls white, carpet soft grey, chairs rose purple and silver painted tables
Anne Mulhren (1983)
-decided to rent space and start renovating to original tea room
-building owned by jewelry store= 1st floor, so she rents upper floors
-2nd floor= tea gallery and Room De Luxe used as original plan
-upper floors renovated to current incarnation of architecture firm where Mack was partner Keppie Henderson ( Honeyman, Keppie, and Mackintosh)
Tea Room Sale
-ran until 1917 when sold by Kate Cranston after husband died
-1917-1980's, building inhabited by several retail businesses
-most kept Room De Luxe as tea gallery, but others used it as shopping display (kept respect for Mackintosh's designs
-Henderson Jewelers out of business and closed in 2014
Mackintosh ebonized furniture chair
traditional Mackintosh design with geographical tree form trellis back extending to lower stretcher
rectilinear design, bold straight lines with pierced heart motif on each canted leg
-elongated splat with stylized plant inlays
-u-shaped top rail forms at arms, legs tapered with square stretchers
tall geographic case with floral piercing, brass face with repousse with 2 female figures touching an hour glass about stylized plant forms
Purkersdorf Sanatorium (1904-1906)
-Hoffman paired flair with all thing rectangular with new materials, reinforce concrete= create Purken. Santa.
-reinforced concrete= design structure to emphasize form of flat roofs
-exterior= white concrete and subtle ornamentation "sanitized"
-concrete easy to clean and maintain
-interior designed by Hoffman and secessionist KOLOMAN MOSER
-new medical technology, hygiene stand and treatment taken into consideration
-fresh air and daylight good for health (large windows and balconies)
-Believed in Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork)
-designed interior to harmonize with exterior
-square tile pattern surrounded by windows on façade= carried throughout on walls, floor, and furniture
Austria (Secession/Weiner Werkstatte) Josef Hoffmann (1870-1956)
-Hoffman was a key figure in the Secession, the Austrian name for Art Nouveau, which was led by painter Gustav Klimt
- Secession was applied because these artists and designers withdrew from the Vienna Academy in protest of their work being judged too modern to exhibit.
-1903 Hoffman founded the Weiner Werkstatteas an offshoot of the Secession- loose guild that produced objects that he and other Secessionists had designed
- Hoffman tended to a rectangular geometry to his designs,influenced by Mackintosh.
-Themes of small squares became tied to his textiles, metalware, furniture, and architectural ornament- designation of the 'Hoffmann square'.
Koloman Moser design with geographic chair with bold vertical lies and a checkerboard woven seat
-influenced by Mackintosh
solid piece with 2 wide doors inlaid with elegant geological designs
Britain: Frances Voysey and Charles Ashbee
-combo of art nouveau and sturdy arts and crafts forms=hybrid look that was more understandable than designs from France or Belgium
-grain of wood spoke for itself
-metal mounts used in flowing style of art nouveau
Liberty and Company
-London store that championed work of art nouveau designer and often commissioned pieces based on Voysey and Mackintosh
-meet demand for decoration and affordable furniture in art nouveau style
-known for simple construction, symmetry, and restrained use of decorative motifs
Charles Voysey Chair
Lighter than Arts and Crafts, yet not as extravagant as Art Nouveau
-horizontal slatted arms and drop in seat
-back tail and geology with stylized inlaid seedpods
Liberty pressing table
simple construction with restrained decoration in art nouveau style (Liberty and Co. Trademark)
-Ornate and curvaceous, with stylized floral marquetry and whiplash tendrils.
- The cabinet doors are leaded glass with tulip pattern dividers.
-Combination of traditional and machine made craftsmanship.
- The wooden case was fashioned by machine, while the floral marquetry and hand hammered hinges and fixtures in geometric floral pattern are handmade.
-painted popular chair, wide in proportion
-multiple hourglass splats
restrained and partly carved with subtle inlays and copper mountings
-slow to develop due to the prevailing historical style.
-The Belgian designer Henri Van de Velde, along with Germans Peter Behrens and Franz von Stuck, worked to bring the Art Nouveau aesthetic to Germany.
-The concept of Gesamtkunstwerkwas formed as an aim to make the home a unified work of art: practical, simple, dignified, and beautiful.
-Designs clean lined and restrained, with gentle curves and relied mainly on the wood for decoration.
-beginning of 20th century, Germany embraced industrial production, and turned attention to improving the quality of mass-produced goods, which in turn pushed Art Nouveau to its end
-known as the Jugendstil(youth style) and flourished in Germany at the end of the 19th century.
-Jugendstil applied its designs to architecture, furnishings, and objects, with an appreciation for symbolism and a preoccupation with natural shapes.
-Many of the Jugendstil artists were painters who turned to decorative arts as a reaction to stifling historicism of the fine arts.
square sectioned arms and supports with curving arm supports and bowed stretchers
beech frame armchair
-designed by Kammerer and built by Thonet Co. -bentwood frame and stretchers with leather upholstry
America: Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933)
-Louis son of founder of Tiffany's jewelers and studies painting in America and Paris
End of 1870's- became interested in decoration of arts and established "Louis C. Tiffany and Associated Artists"= I.D. practiced in 1877
-Co. worked with residential and commercial clients and followed Victorian taste for crowding, with awareness to Arts and Crafts
-1885= renamed Tiffany Glass Co.- showed interest of stained glass
-Commissioned for American Churches
Spain: Antoni Gaudi (1852-1926)
-(Casta Batlio, Barcelona, Spain 1904-06)
-Commissioned as a reconstruction, Gaudi took the fantasy of nouveau to excess.
-Referred to as 'the house of bones' Gaudi has transformed the static façade through material ( ceramic mosaic and carved sandstone) and form choices, with no area remaining flat or static for long
Tiffany Glass Co.
-Tiffany used cheap jelly jars and bottles because they had impurities and variation that fine glass lacked.
-When glassmakers refused to work with these materials, Tiffany was forced to start making his own glass.
- stained glass method at the time was for painting on clear glass with enamels or glass paint, but Tiffany followed Morris and chose to use colored opalescent glass in varying colors and textures.
-Tiffany trademarked the word 'favrile' (frenchfor handmade) to describe his work after the first glass was blown in his new factory in Queens, New York.
-1892- Tiffany established his name on an international scale with "The Four Seasons" which won a gold medal at the 1900 Exposition Universale in Paris.
-Tiffany studios began to produce lamps and objects- stained glass techniques.
-handmade, with intricate glass shades usually combining floral motifs with abstract pattern. -Not all Tiffany lamps were designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany, team of male and female designers that worked under the Tiffany brand
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
-(The Larkin Building 1902-06, x1950)
-considered greatest American architect of all time
-1902: worked on first building of modern movement
-Larkin building in Buffalo changed concept of design of office environment
-had fire precautions
-Larkin Co: mail order soap company
-John Larkin commissioned Lloyd Wright to create building=clean, bright and addressed needs of employers
-skylights in central atrium
-First AC building!! Air outside too polluted
-cleanliness high, created chair that was connected to desk
-Victorian Homes replaces by sophistication in surface and flattening of Victorian forms
-colors bold palette: gray, punk, apple green, olive and debuted mauve
-1856: purple chemical synthetic as a hue- took a lot of money to make- reserved for royalty and made it more accessible to achieve
Decorative ceramics- potential for use but didn't solely utilize
-opened studio focused on such pieces and students experimented with new forms, glazed and fire techniques
-single high firing with less allowance for adjusting= variation and happenstance to add unique quality
-glazes heart of experiment
-opposition of matte glazes in Great Britain, French developed technique with high luster finish reminiscent of metal
American Art Pottery
Same characteristics and experiment but result was more reserved expression of art nouveau blended with arts and crafts
Evacuation of Roman sites
-late 19th century: uncovered species of glass
-buried in soil heavy with metal oxide
-glass sheen and luster which was not sheen before
-first Karen iridescent glass- Louis Tiffany in 1893 (not the first to experiment but his formulas and products are inspired today)
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