Social Studies - India Unit
Terms in this set (38)
A large landmass that juts out from a continent. (India is a subcontinent)
Large ancient city of the Indus civilization, located in present-day Pakistan)
Ancient city of the Indus civilization, located in present-day Pakistan)
A group of polytheistic nomads that originated in Central Asia. They came to India through a break in the Hindu Kush Mountains known as the Khyber Pass.
Written by the early Aryan civilization. It shows that the Aryans were very violents people who greatly worshiped their god Indra, who protects them and crushes all other civilizations. They believes that they are extremely powerful and take joy/pride in destroying and taking property. (Their number one value is power).
Written by the Aryans 1,000 years after they wrote out the Rig Veda. It shows that the Aryans now worship the earth, family, protection, and long life. They no longer seek to plunder and destroy, but wish to stay clear of harm's way and live long, peaceful lives. (Farming is also very important to them as stated in the Atharva Veda).
It does not have a single founder, a specific theological system, a single system of morality, and religious organization. Hinduism was influenced by other civilizations, such as the Aryans. In 1500, the Aryans came to India and their beliefs/culture of Vedism and their Vedas → (a large body of oral literature, preserved orally and in texts, which were sacred), were mixed in with the indigenous Indian native beliefs.
The Hindu belief in nonviolence and reverence/respect for all life.
In Hindu belief, all the actions that are performed in one's present life, that affects a person's fate in their next life. (Good karma could bring you higher up the Caste system in your next life, but bad karma could bring you down. The goal is to get so high up the scale that you break free of the system of life, death and rebirth (known as samsara), and reach Moksha). Karma is also found in Buddhism. They believe in both good and bad karma and if you perform enough good karma and reach enlightenment, you can break free of the system of life, death and rebirth and reach nirvana.
The main, powerful, destructive god of the Aryans' polytheistic culture of Vedism. He was seen as their protector in both the Rig Veda (seems rather violent in this one), and the Atharva Veda (seems a bit more peaceful, but not as worshipped by the Aryans in this one).
In the religion of Hinduism, it is a person's religious and moral duties.
It began in India after the Aryans invaded and took over. The Aryans prohibited marriage between their own people and the people that they have conquered. From 1000 to 500 B.C., four classes of people emerged in India. (Really there are 5 classes, but the untouchables are so low that they are not even counted). They socialized, worked, ate, married and worshipped within their own caste. It was abolished by law in 1949. It was based around hinduism and the belief that everyone is stuck in the system of samsara, a cycle of life, death and rebirth. Karma is the sum of one's good and bad deeds, which will determine how you live your next life. Good karma can bring you up the scale in your next life, while bad karma can bring you down the scale in both your present life and your future life.
The Brahman and the Kshatriyas
The Sudras and the Harijan
Priests and scholars, (such as teachers, intellectuals, etc.)
Rulers → (government) and warriors → (military)
Merchants, traders, farmers (higher level workers)
Peasants bound to the land, (they work for the farmers, artisans)
(The Untouchables) ((Lowest of the low))
A religion founded by the Buddha, (also known as Siddhartha). It's focus is to help those attain enlightenment and eventually reach nirvana once they have found inner peace through following the Four Noble Truths and the Noble Eightfold Path.
First Noble Truth: Suffering exists
Second Noble Truth: Suffering is caused by desire
Third Noble Truth: It is possible to end suffering if one is aware of their desires and puts an end to them. This awareness will give them lasting peace and then they will have reached nirvana
Fourth Noble Truth: Follow the Noble Eightfold Path in order to reach enlightenment, and eventually nirvana
Gautama Buddha (Siddhartha)
The founder of Buddhism. He was originally a prince, son of King Suddhodana and Queen Maya. He was born around 563 B.C. After having witness, old age, illness, and death, (suffering) he decided he wanted to find out how to end all suffering in life somehow. He sought for the answer for 7 years, but to no avail. Finally, he sat under a tree and meditated and by dawn, he had become one with himself and discovered inner peace. He taught his ways and knowledge to his followers who then travelled all across India, spreading his teachings to other, and later on, writing it down.
The place one goes to after finding inner peace and obtaining enlightenment. They then break out of the cycle of life, death and rebirth and can go live in happiness and peace in nirvana.
The rebirth of the soul in another bodily form.
A loose (golden age), empire that had a strong, central government, did not give severe punishments to criminals, created many new advancements in science, math, art/architecture, and literature; and also promoted peace and prosperity throughout the society.
A great period of cultural achievement, such
- Thriving economy
- Technological advancements
- Many jobs
Understand the four noble truths and the workings of your own mind.
Think kindly of others and avoid dwelling on the past and future.
Speak kindly and truthfully. Do not use foul and vain talk.
Act kindly towards all living things. Do not steal, kill, and use "intoxicants".
Have a job that does not harm others.
Be determined to cleanse your mind and thoughts.
Be fully away of what you are doing, and always have concern for others.
Meditate and focus on being one with any situation.
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