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Economic groups have an advantage over non-economic groups because

they have greater access to financial resources.

Objective reporting is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to

report the facts and cover alternative sides of a partisan debate.

In the United States,

voter registration requirements have usually been set by the states.

Through the grants of power in the Constitution, the framers sought to

both define the powers of the national government and limit them.

The Greek words demos and kratis together mean

the people rule.

The Democratic Party's long-time regional stronghold, the Solid South, stemmed from a realignment during which historical period?

Civil War era

National party organizations can dictate the day-to-day decisions of

neither local nor state party organizations

A conservative is opposed to government intervention

in the economic but not the social sphere

Voter identification cards find the most support among


Political parties serve to

All these answers are correct

Any law that attempts a racial or ethnic classification is subject to the

strict scrutiny test

The fact that farmers have more influence over agricultural price-supports than do other groups is an example of


Which of the following is correct with regard to obscenity and the law?

Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.

Which of the following ideological types favor government activism in the economic realm?

liberals and populists

Which of the following is a correct statement about commerce power in the U.S.?

All these answers are correct

According to the Supreme Court, prior restraint on the press is only acceptable if

the government can clearly justify the restriction.

The Bill of Rights added to the Constitution, among other things

a guarantee of freedom of speech

Which of the following has democracy come to mean in practice?

majority rule through the free and open election of representatives

Women are less likely than men to favor

the use of force to settle international disputes

Which of the following is a difference between communism and socialism, as described by the text?

Under communism, the government takes responsibility for overall management of the economy, whereas under socialism, the government does not try to manage the overall economy.

In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly

targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions

One of the reasons the reporting of national news is relatively uniform among news sources is that

a small number of news organizations and news services generate most of the news.

When the United States first came into being, married women were not permitted to

All these answers are correct

Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?

the presidency

The framers' most significant modification of the traditional doctrine of the separation powers was to

ensure that the powers of the separate branches overlap, so that each could better act as a check on the others

The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling (1954) held that racial segregation in schools violated the

equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment

During the twentieth century, American parties lost their complete control over

All these answers are correct

According to the Supreme Court, which is true regarding freedom of assembly?

Public officials can regulate the time, place, and conditions of public assembly, provided the regulations are reasonable.

In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly

targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions

De jure discrimination and de facto discrimination are two ways in which some Americans are treated as less equal than others. Examples of public policies designed to address each of these forms of discrimination are

the Brown decision (de jure), and affirmative action (de facto).

The idea that government should be restricted in its lawful uses of power and hence in its ability to deprive people of their liberty is expressed by the term

limited government

The Constitution allows states to

govern intrastate commerce

The reason the news product is designed to fascinate as well as to inform is because

news organizations are fundamentally businesses and must obtain revenue to survive.

Political protests

are today usually planned events

Which of the following statements about Americans and ideology and political thinking is true?

Only a minority of Americans can be classified as true ideologues

PACs tend to contribute money to


Civic duty and apathy are attitudes that are usually acquired from

one's parents

The idea that ordinary people have a right and a duty to participate in public affairs is the essential component of the ideal of


A contemporary legislator who voted for a bill because of a belief in its benefit, even though his constituents back home overwhelmingly opposed the bill, would be performing the Edmund Burke role of


Government can lawfully prevent a political rally from taking place

when it can demonstrate that harmful acts will necessarily result from the rally

Which of the following is true of employment in lobbying firms by members of Congress?

They are prohibited by law from lobbying Congress for a set period of time after leaving office.

Which of the following is true of letter writers and demonstrators?

Their opinions tend to be atypical of the population as whole

In the United States, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with the


Where is the Bill of Rights found in the Constitution?

the first ten amendments

The 1996 Defense of Marriage Act

authorizes states to deny marital rights to a same-sex couple that has been granted these rights by another state.

Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?

the presidency

Public interest groups are distinguished by the fact that

their members receive no direct economic benefit from attainment of the group's goals.

Which of the following groups in the U.S. shows a higher level of support for collective bargaining?

factory workers

If a state accepts a federal grant-in-aid, it must

comply with federal restrictions on its use.

The term "public opinion" is frequently used in reference to all of American society. This perspective is

less accurate than the idea that Americans form many publics, which differ greatly in such things as the level of attention they pay to politics.

The greatest blow to the organizational strength of U.S. parties was

the direct primary.

One example of a policy that aimed chiefly to overcome de facto discrimination is

busing to achieve racial integration in the schools.

Which of the following groups is not typically a part of the Democratic coalition?

fundamentalist Christians

Which of the following represents the greatest blow to the organizational strength of U.S. parties?

the direct primary

In a constitutional system,

there are lawful restrictions on a government's power

Which of the following is an example of checks and balances?

All these answers are correct.

Effective inside lobbying is based upon

providing useful and persuasive information to key officials

Political parties serve

All these answers are correct.

A public policy program on which national, state, and local policymakers collaborate is an example of

cooperative federalism

The reason the news product is designed to fascinate as well as to inform is because

news organizations are fundamentally businesses and must obtain revenue to survive

Compared with U.S. citizens of higher income, those of lower income are

much less likely to vote in elections

Native Americans

All these answers are correct.

Candidate-centered politics encourages all of the following except

long-term consistency in policymaking.

PACs tend to contribute the most money to


A person who favors government intervention in both social and economic affairs is a(n)


The most well-financed interest groups are those that promote

corporate interests

Grass roots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to

pressure from constituents

The federal government's licensing of broadcasting is based primarily on

the scarcity of broadcasting frequencies

A member of Congress who wants to act on what the majority of his or her constituency thinks on a particular issue would be advised to respond to which of the following indicators?

a poll based on a random sample of constituents

________ elections tend to draw the largest percentage of voters in the U.S.


In order to overcome the free-rider problem, non-economic groups have

used internet resources and computer-assisted mailing lists to target potential donors.

The United States has certain rules in place to keep politics within peaceful bounds. These rules include all of the following EXCEPT


Which of the following is most closely related to the concept of implied powers?

necessary and proper clause

A consistent pattern of opinion on particular issues that stems from a coherent set of political beliefs is called

an ideology

One reason that affirmative action is so controversial is that

it is viewed as giving preferential treatment, which is unpopular, instead of simply ensuring equal treatment.

Devolution is

the passing of authority from the national government to the state and local levels

The news provides a refracted version of reality because it

emphasizes dramatic and compelling news stories

The situation where individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called

the free-rider problem

The theory that society's interests are most effectively represented through group action is

pluralist theory

In recent presidential elections, which party's platform has supported school prayer and been opposed to abortion?


Equality of result policies are primarily directed at ________ discriminatory effects.

de facto

The federal government's power to tax, regulate commerce among the states, and declare war are all examples of ________ powers.


In general, public opinion

sets limits on government action

Prospective voting is characterized by

choices based on an awareness of the candidates' positions on various issues

The Supreme Court's position on prior restraint of the press is that

prior restraint should apply only in rare circumstances, and it is better to hold the press responsible for what it has printed than to restrict what it may print

The Tenth Amendment addressed the concerns of Anti-Federalists about

the powers of state governments

Viewed in historical terms, federalism has been a

contentious and dynamic system that has adapted to the needs of the time.

Housing in America

continues to evidence a high degree of racial segregation.

Democrats and Republicans have endured as the two major U.S. parties primarily due to

their ability to adapt to changing circumstances

The exclusionary rule states that

evidence obtained illegally is inadmissible in court.

In which of the following ways is the U.S. free-market system distinct from the European economies?

the extent to which private transactions determine the allocation of economic costs and benefits

Pluralism contends that, on most issues,

it is the preference of the special interest that largely determines what government does

A main difference between iron triangles and issue networks is

issue networks are generally less stable than iron triangles, such that the members of an issue network may change as the issue develops.

The traditional media have "softened" their news by

infusing it with more stories about celebrities, crime, and the like

Effective inside lobbying is based upon

providing useful and persuasive information to key officials

State and local governments

lobby in Washington, D.C., most effectively through organizations representing groups of states and localities.

Which of the following aspects of U.S. government might be used as part of an argument that the U.S. is less democratic than some other democracies?

its staggered terms of office of members of the legislature

Which of the following groups is NOT typically a part of the Democratic coalition?

fundamentalist Christians

The most powerful religious force in contemporary American society is the

religious right

Voter registration in the United States

began as a way of preventing voters from casting more than one ballot on election day.

All of the following statements about Latino Americans are true EXCEPT that

their average annual income is relatively close to the national average.

The Constitution forbids Congress from

passing ex post facto laws

Each of the following statements could be considered true of either economic or social liberals, EXCEPT that

they believe that government should be used to promote traditional values

The FCC's equal time requirement

prohibits broadcasters from selling or giving time to political candidates and denying it to their opponents

The Bill of Rights

further checked the power of the majority

Which of the following is not a typical interest group function?

addressing a broad and diverse range of public issues

The individual right that is widely regarded as the most basic of individual rights is

freedom of expression.

Which of the following characteristics does the Internet have that traditional media lack?

the ability to allow readers to interact with news reporting

_____ provides no free television time to political parties and allows candidates to purchase air time.

The United States

In applying the reasonable basis test, courts tend to

require government only to show that a particular law is reasonable.

Most states conduct _____ primaries.


The elastic clause is related to which of the following concepts?

implied powers


All these answers are correct

In the dynamics of an iron triangle, what benefit do interest groups provide to friendly bureaucratic agencies?

lobbying support for agency programs

Proportional representation systems encourage the formation of smaller parties by enabling parties to

win legislative seats even though they do not receive a majority of votes in elections.

Outside lobbying does not include the use of

developing and maintaining close contacts with policymakers.

A government's authority

is evidenced when government officials use their right to exercise power

The Supreme Court concept of suspect classifications suggests that

laws that classify people differently on the basis of their race or ethnicity are presumed to have discrimination as their purpose.

The process of political socialization in the United States is

normally cumulative; political beliefs attained earlier in life tend to be retained to a substantial degree.

The news provides a selective depiction of reality because it

emphasizes dramatic events and excludes slow, steady processes.

In terms of party identification, about two-thirds of adults call themselves

Republicans or Democrats

The news media are usually guided by events that

are timely.

The principle of checks and balances is based on the notion that

power must be used to offset power

One of the reasons that the reporting of national news is relatively uniform among news sources is because

a small number of news organizations and news services generate most of the news.

When the nation was founded, who was eligible to vote?

only white males who owned property

The traditional media have "softened" their news by

infusing it with more stories about celebrities, crime, and the like.

The Fourteenth Amendment applies to discriminatory action by

government only

Unlike in many other democracies, elections in the United States are traditionally held on


If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that

the major parties will try to capture its supporters

The individual freedoms in the Bill of Rights were extended by the Fourteenth Amendment to include protection from deprivation of due process rights by

actions of state and local governments

Which of the following is NOT among the checks Congress has on the executive?

power to declare an executive action unlawful

Party de-alignment is

None of these answers is correct

The term iron triangle refers to

a small and informal but relatively stable set of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists who are concerned with promoting a particular interest.

Today, the largest labor unions are those that represent

service and public employees

According to the Supreme Court, prayer in public schools violates

the establishment clause

The writers of the Constitution devised the Electoral College as the method of choosing presidents because

the method would shield executive power from direct linkage to popular majorities

A set of lobbyists, legislators, policy experts, and executives who come together temporarily in debate over a complex policy issue is

an issue network

The most fully organized interests are those that represent


All of the following tend to decrease voter turnout EXCEPT

sharp policy differences between major parties

National authority has greatly expanded in the twentieth century in large part because

local, state, and federal governments have become increasingly interdependent.

If a person yells "fire" in a crowded theater when there is no fire, and people are hurt in the ensuing panic, that individual abused his freedom of speech according to the doctrine of

clear and present danger

Most lobbyists receive support from elected officials in direct exchange for


Which statement about women's rights is correct?

Women have made substantial gains in the areas of appointive and elective offices.

Organizationally, the U.S. major parties are

decentralized and weak.

In an oligarchy,

control rests with a small group, such as military officers or a few wealthy families.

The Communications Act

imposed on broadcasters an "equal time" restriction that prevented preference for some political candidates over others

The major reason for the persistence of the American two-party system is

the existence of single-member election districts

A totalitarian government

admits to no limits on its power

Regular voters tend to be characterized by

a strong sense of civic duty

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