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199 terms

POS 2 Political Science

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Economic groups have an advantage over non-economic groups because
they have greater access to financial resources.
Objective reporting is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to
report the facts and cover alternative sides of a partisan debate.
In the United States,
voter registration requirements have usually been set by the states.
Through the grants of power in the Constitution, the framers sought to
both define the powers of the national government and limit them.
The Greek words demos and kratis together mean
the people rule.
The Democratic Party's long-time regional stronghold, the Solid South, stemmed from a realignment during which historical period?
Civil War era
National party organizations can dictate the day-to-day decisions of
neither local nor state party organizations
A conservative is opposed to government intervention
in the economic but not the social sphere
Voter identification cards find the most support among
Republicans.
Political parties serve to
All these answers are correct
Any law that attempts a racial or ethnic classification is subject to the
strict scrutiny test
The fact that farmers have more influence over agricultural price-supports than do other groups is an example of
pluralism.
Which of the following is correct with regard to obscenity and the law?
Obscenity is not protected by the First Amendment.
Which of the following ideological types favor government activism in the economic realm?
liberals and populists
Which of the following is a correct statement about commerce power in the U.S.?
All these answers are correct
According to the Supreme Court, prior restraint on the press is only acceptable if
the government can clearly justify the restriction.
The Bill of Rights added to the Constitution, among other things
a guarantee of freedom of speech
Which of the following has democracy come to mean in practice?
majority rule through the free and open election of representatives
Women are less likely than men to favor
the use of force to settle international disputes
Which of the following is a difference between communism and socialism, as described by the text?
Under communism, the government takes responsibility for overall management of the economy, whereas under socialism, the government does not try to manage the overall economy.
In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly
targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions
One of the reasons the reporting of national news is relatively uniform among news sources is that
a small number of news organizations and news services generate most of the news.
When the United States first came into being, married women were not permitted to
All these answers are correct
Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
Answer
Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
Answer
Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
the presidency
The framers' most significant modification of the traditional doctrine of the separation powers was to
ensure that the powers of the separate branches overlap, so that each could better act as a check on the others
The Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas ruling (1954) held that racial segregation in schools violated the
equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment
During the twentieth century, American parties lost their complete control over
All these answers are correct
According to the Supreme Court, which is true regarding freedom of assembly?
Public officials can regulate the time, place, and conditions of public assembly, provided the regulations are reasonable.
In recent decades, lobbyists in Washington, D.C. have increasingly
targeted the executive branch in their efforts to influence policy decisions
De jure discrimination and de facto discrimination are two ways in which some Americans are treated as less equal than others. Examples of public policies designed to address each of these forms of discrimination are
the Brown decision (de jure), and affirmative action (de facto).
The idea that government should be restricted in its lawful uses of power and hence in its ability to deprive people of their liberty is expressed by the term
limited government
The Constitution allows states to
govern intrastate commerce
The reason the news product is designed to fascinate as well as to inform is because
news organizations are fundamentally businesses and must obtain revenue to survive.
Political protests
are today usually planned events
Which of the following statements about Americans and ideology and political thinking is true?
Only a minority of Americans can be classified as true ideologues
PACs tend to contribute money to
incumbents.
Civic duty and apathy are attitudes that are usually acquired from
one's parents
The idea that ordinary people have a right and a duty to participate in public affairs is the essential component of the ideal of
self-government
A contemporary legislator who voted for a bill because of a belief in its benefit, even though his constituents back home overwhelmingly opposed the bill, would be performing the Edmund Burke role of
trustee.
Government can lawfully prevent a political rally from taking place
when it can demonstrate that harmful acts will necessarily result from the rally
Which of the following is true of employment in lobbying firms by members of Congress?
They are prohibited by law from lobbying Congress for a set period of time after leaving office.
Which of the following is true of letter writers and demonstrators?
Their opinions tend to be atypical of the population as whole
In the United States, the primary responsibility for registration of the individual voter rests with the
individual.
Where is the Bill of Rights found in the Constitution?
the first ten amendments
The 1996 Defense of Marriage Act
authorizes states to deny marital rights to a same-sex couple that has been granted these rights by another state.
Which institution receives the most news coverage from the national press?
the presidency
Public interest groups are distinguished by the fact that
their members receive no direct economic benefit from attainment of the group's goals.
Which of the following groups in the U.S. shows a higher level of support for collective bargaining?
factory workers
If a state accepts a federal grant-in-aid, it must
comply with federal restrictions on its use.
The term "public opinion" is frequently used in reference to all of American society. This perspective is
less accurate than the idea that Americans form many publics, which differ greatly in such things as the level of attention they pay to politics.
The greatest blow to the organizational strength of U.S. parties was
the direct primary.
One example of a policy that aimed chiefly to overcome de facto discrimination is
busing to achieve racial integration in the schools.
Which of the following groups is not typically a part of the Democratic coalition?
fundamentalist Christians
Which of the following represents the greatest blow to the organizational strength of U.S. parties?
the direct primary
In a constitutional system,
there are lawful restrictions on a government's power
Which of the following is an example of checks and balances?
All these answers are correct.
Effective inside lobbying is based upon
providing useful and persuasive information to key officials
Political parties serve
All these answers are correct.
A public policy program on which national, state, and local policymakers collaborate is an example of
cooperative federalism
The reason the news product is designed to fascinate as well as to inform is because
news organizations are fundamentally businesses and must obtain revenue to survive
Compared with U.S. citizens of higher income, those of lower income are
much less likely to vote in elections
Native Americans
All these answers are correct.
Candidate-centered politics encourages all of the following except
long-term consistency in policymaking.
PACs tend to contribute the most money to
incumbents.
A person who favors government intervention in both social and economic affairs is a(n)
populist
The most well-financed interest groups are those that promote
corporate interests
Grass roots lobbying is based on the assumption that officials will respond to
pressure from constituents
The federal government's licensing of broadcasting is based primarily on
the scarcity of broadcasting frequencies
A member of Congress who wants to act on what the majority of his or her constituency thinks on a particular issue would be advised to respond to which of the following indicators?
a poll based on a random sample of constituents
________ elections tend to draw the largest percentage of voters in the U.S.
Presidential
In order to overcome the free-rider problem, non-economic groups have
used internet resources and computer-assisted mailing lists to target potential donors.
The United States has certain rules in place to keep politics within peaceful bounds. These rules include all of the following EXCEPT
autocracy.
Which of the following is most closely related to the concept of implied powers?
necessary and proper clause
A consistent pattern of opinion on particular issues that stems from a coherent set of political beliefs is called
an ideology
One reason that affirmative action is so controversial is that
it is viewed as giving preferential treatment, which is unpopular, instead of simply ensuring equal treatment.
Devolution is
the passing of authority from the national government to the state and local levels
The news provides a refracted version of reality because it
emphasizes dramatic and compelling news stories
The situation where individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called
the free-rider problem
The theory that society's interests are most effectively represented through group action is
pluralist theory
In recent presidential elections, which party's platform has supported school prayer and been opposed to abortion?
Republican
Equality of result policies are primarily directed at ________ discriminatory effects.
de facto
The federal government's power to tax, regulate commerce among the states, and declare war are all examples of ________ powers.
enumerated
In general, public opinion
sets limits on government action
Prospective voting is characterized by
choices based on an awareness of the candidates' positions on various issues
The Supreme Court's position on prior restraint of the press is that
prior restraint should apply only in rare circumstances, and it is better to hold the press responsible for what it has printed than to restrict what it may print
The Tenth Amendment addressed the concerns of Anti-Federalists about
the powers of state governments
Viewed in historical terms, federalism has been a
contentious and dynamic system that has adapted to the needs of the time.
Housing in America
continues to evidence a high degree of racial segregation.
Democrats and Republicans have endured as the two major U.S. parties primarily due to
their ability to adapt to changing circumstances
The exclusionary rule states that
evidence obtained illegally is inadmissible in court.
In which of the following ways is the U.S. free-market system distinct from the European economies?
the extent to which private transactions determine the allocation of economic costs and benefits
Pluralism contends that, on most issues,
it is the preference of the special interest that largely determines what government does
A main difference between iron triangles and issue networks is
issue networks are generally less stable than iron triangles, such that the members of an issue network may change as the issue develops.
The traditional media have "softened" their news by
infusing it with more stories about celebrities, crime, and the like
Effective inside lobbying is based upon
providing useful and persuasive information to key officials
State and local governments
lobby in Washington, D.C., most effectively through organizations representing groups of states and localities.
Which of the following aspects of U.S. government might be used as part of an argument that the U.S. is less democratic than some other democracies?
its staggered terms of office of members of the legislature
Which of the following groups is NOT typically a part of the Democratic coalition?
fundamentalist Christians
The most powerful religious force in contemporary American society is the
religious right
Voter registration in the United States
began as a way of preventing voters from casting more than one ballot on election day.
All of the following statements about Latino Americans are true EXCEPT that
their average annual income is relatively close to the national average.
The Constitution forbids Congress from
passing ex post facto laws
Each of the following statements could be considered true of either economic or social liberals, EXCEPT that
they believe that government should be used to promote traditional values
The FCC's equal time requirement
prohibits broadcasters from selling or giving time to political candidates and denying it to their opponents
The Bill of Rights
further checked the power of the majority
Which of the following is not a typical interest group function?
addressing a broad and diverse range of public issues
The individual right that is widely regarded as the most basic of individual rights is
freedom of expression.
Which of the following characteristics does the Internet have that traditional media lack?
the ability to allow readers to interact with news reporting
_____ provides no free television time to political parties and allows candidates to purchase air time.
The United States
In applying the reasonable basis test, courts tend to
require government only to show that a particular law is reasonable.
Most states conduct _____ primaries.
closed
The elastic clause is related to which of the following concepts?
implied powers
Voting
All these answers are correct
In the dynamics of an iron triangle, what benefit do interest groups provide to friendly bureaucratic agencies?
lobbying support for agency programs
Proportional representation systems encourage the formation of smaller parties by enabling parties to
win legislative seats even though they do not receive a majority of votes in elections.
Outside lobbying does not include the use of
developing and maintaining close contacts with policymakers.
A government's authority
is evidenced when government officials use their right to exercise power
The Supreme Court concept of suspect classifications suggests that
laws that classify people differently on the basis of their race or ethnicity are presumed to have discrimination as their purpose.
The process of political socialization in the United States is
normally cumulative; political beliefs attained earlier in life tend to be retained to a substantial degree.
The news provides a selective depiction of reality because it
emphasizes dramatic events and excludes slow, steady processes.
In terms of party identification, about two-thirds of adults call themselves
Republicans or Democrats
The news media are usually guided by events that
are timely.
The principle of checks and balances is based on the notion that
power must be used to offset power
One of the reasons that the reporting of national news is relatively uniform among news sources is because
a small number of news organizations and news services generate most of the news.
When the nation was founded, who was eligible to vote?
only white males who owned property
The traditional media have "softened" their news by
infusing it with more stories about celebrities, crime, and the like.
The Fourteenth Amendment applies to discriminatory action by
government only
Unlike in many other democracies, elections in the United States are traditionally held on
Tuesdays
If a minor party gains a large following, it is almost certain that
the major parties will try to capture its supporters
The individual freedoms in the Bill of Rights were extended by the Fourteenth Amendment to include protection from deprivation of due process rights by
actions of state and local governments
Which of the following is NOT among the checks Congress has on the executive?
power to declare an executive action unlawful
Party de-alignment is
None of these answers is correct
The term iron triangle refers to
a small and informal but relatively stable set of bureaucrats, legislators, and lobbyists who are concerned with promoting a particular interest.
Today, the largest labor unions are those that represent
service and public employees
According to the Supreme Court, prayer in public schools violates
the establishment clause
The writers of the Constitution devised the Electoral College as the method of choosing presidents because
the method would shield executive power from direct linkage to popular majorities
A set of lobbyists, legislators, policy experts, and executives who come together temporarily in debate over a complex policy issue is
an issue network
The most fully organized interests are those that represent
business.
All of the following tend to decrease voter turnout EXCEPT
sharp policy differences between major parties
National authority has greatly expanded in the twentieth century in large part because
local, state, and federal governments have become increasingly interdependent.
If a person yells "fire" in a crowded theater when there is no fire, and people are hurt in the ensuing panic, that individual abused his freedom of speech according to the doctrine of
clear and present danger
Most lobbyists receive support from elected officials in direct exchange for
information.
Which statement about women's rights is correct?
Women have made substantial gains in the areas of appointive and elective offices.
Organizationally, the U.S. major parties are
decentralized and weak.
In an oligarchy,
control rests with a small group, such as military officers or a few wealthy families.
The Communications Act
imposed on broadcasters an "equal time" restriction that prevented preference for some political candidates over others
The major reason for the persistence of the American two-party system is
the existence of single-member election districts
A totalitarian government
admits to no limits on its power
Regular voters tend to be characterized by
a strong sense of civic duty
The group system politically favors those interests that
are already favored by the economic system
Sovereignty refers to
supreme and final governing authority.
Freedom of the press is substantial in the United States because
All these answers are correct
Disadvantaged Americans have generally gained their rights
through struggle against entrenched interests
The establishment clause prohibits government from
favoring one religion over another or supporting religion over no religion.
When it comes to protest activities, a majority of Americans are
not highly supportive of such activities, despite America's tradition of free expression.
What issue has done the most to bring young Americans to the voting booth in the twenty-first century?
the war in Iraq
A primary difference between a political party and a typical interest group is that the party
adapts its policy positions
All of the following ideological types are prevalent in the United States EXCEPT
communists
The special contribution of Internet-based news is that it
provides an outlet for opinion.
The Supreme Court has reasoned that a right of privacy is provided by
the implication of said right by the freedoms in the Bill of Rights.
Roughly two-thirds of all lobbyists in the nation's capital represent
business firms.
The poll tax was used to
disenfranchise African Americans in the South
_____ is based on judgment about the past performance of an elected official or political party.
Retrospective voting
The Democratic coalition today includes the following groups except
the Christian Coalition
Since the height of the busing era, the trend in public schools has been
toward greater segregation
Progressive reforms included
All these answers are correct
A flaw in pluralism theory is the fact that
the interest group system is unrepresentative because some interests are far better organized and more powerful than others.
Dramatic change in party identification is uncommon and is almost always a consequence of
major upheaval
To the framers, the great danger of democratic government was the risk of
tyranny of the majority.
Objective journalism is based on the idea that the reporter's job is to
report the facts and cover alternative sides of a partisan debate.
Why have issue networks become more prevalent than iron triangles?
the increasing complexity of policy problems
The internet has
failed to strengthen the news-reading habits of Americans
What party has made big gains in recent decades among white fundamentalist Christians, based on its positions on topics like abortion and school prayer?
Republican
Presidential appointments and treaties must be approved by
the Senate
Advantages that Republicans and Democrats have over minor party candidates include
All of the answers are correct
Like all other rights, the right of free expression is
not absolute
Libertarians are opposed to governmental intervention
in both the economic and social spheres
A basic reason for the existence of so many interest groups in the United States is
All these answers are correct
In America today, public education is primarily the responsibility of
state and local governments
The situation in which individuals are tempted not to contribute to a cause because they will get the benefits even if they do not participate is called
the free-rider problem
Which of the following are key players in the modern campaign?
All these answers are correct
Citizens' interest groups are distinguished from economic interest groups by the fact that
their members receive no direct economic benefit from attainment of the group's goals.
The Supreme Court
has generally protected symbolic speech, though less substantially than it has protected verbal speech
Which of the following characteristics does the internet have that traditional media lacks?
the ability to interact with its followers
The theory that nearly all interests are adequately presented through group activity is
pluralism.
Which of the following, relative to the others, is typically more protective of individual rights?
the judiciary
Which of the following statements is true?
The federal government raises roughly as much revenue from taxation as all state and local governments combined
The writers of the Constitution established a federal system of government in part because
the states already existed as established entities and had to be preserved
The most significant resource that most groups offer congressional candidates is
money.
American party organizations
are still important, but their role in campaigns is secondary to that of candidates.
Judicial review is the power of the American courts to
declare a law unconstitutional.
Which of the following nations is often noted as an example of a government that has a system of checks and balances, but is often plagued by political extremes?
Mexico
One special contribution of Internet-based news is that it
provides the ordinary citizen with an opportunity to be part of the news system
An amicus brief
is a written document in which a group explains to a court its position on a legal dispute the court is handling
Regarding state party organizations, the day-to-day operation is usually the responsibility of
the state chairperson
Protest activity is a reversal to the pattern of voting in that it
is more likely to involve younger citizens rather than older ones.
The largest number of PACs are those associated with
business.
Interest group activity is basic to the democratic process because it
serves to promote the concerns of various interests in society
Which of the following is true of the appeal process?
The Constitution does not guarantee an appeal after conviction, but the federal government and all states permit at least one appeal.