Terms in this set (40)
I Olfactory Nerves Function
Purely sensory; carry afferent impulses for sense of smell.
II Optic Nerves Function
Purely sensory; carry afferent impulses for vision.
III Oculmotor Nerves Function
Chiefly motor nerves (oculomotor = motor of the eye); contain a few proprioceptive afferents.
IV Trochlear Nerves Function
Primarily motor nerves; supply somatic motor fibers to (and carry proprioceptor fibers from) one of the extrinsic eye muscles, the superior oblique muscle, which passes through the pulley-shaped trochlea.
V Trigeminal Nerves Function: Ophthalmic Division (V1)
Conveys sensory impulses from skin of anterior scalp, upper eyelid, and nose, and from nasal cavity mucosa, cornea, and lacrimal gland.
V Trigeminal Nerves Function: Maxillary Division (V2)
Conveys sensory impulses from nasal cavity mucosa, palate, upper teeth, skin of cheek, upper lip, lower eyelid.
V Trigeminal Nerves Function: Mandibular Division (V3)
Conveys sensory impulses from anterior tongue (except taste buds), lower teeth, skin of chin, temporal region of scalp. Supplies motor fibers to, and carries proprioceptor fibers from, muscles of mastication.
VI Abducens Nerves Function
Primarily motor; supply somatic fibers to lateral rectus muscle, an extrinsic muscle of the eye. Convey proprioceptor impulses from same muscle to brain.
VII Facial Nerves Function
Mixed nerves that are the chief motor nerves of face. Five major branches: temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, and cervical.
VIII Vestibulocochlear Nerves Function
Mostly sensory. Vestibular branch transmits afferent impulses for sense of equilibrium, and sensory nerve cell bodies are located in vestibular ganglia. Cochlear branch transmits afferent impulses for sense of hearing, and sensory nerve cell bodies are located in spiral ganglion within cochlea. Small motor component adjusts the sensitivity of sensory receptors.
IX Glossopharyngeal Nerves Function
Mixed nerves that innervate part of tongue and pharynx. Provide somatic motor fibers to, and carry proprioceptor fibers from, a superior pharyngeal muscle called the stylopharyngeus, which elevates the pharynx in swallowing. Provide parasympathetic motor fibers to parotid salivary glands (some of the nerve cell bodies of these parasympathetic motor neurons are located in otic ganglion). Sensory fibers conduct taste and general sensory (touch, pressure, pain) impulses from pharynx and posterior tongue, from chemoreceptors in the carotid body (which monitor O2 and CO2 levels in the blood and help regulate respiratory rate and depth), and from baroreceptors of carotid sinus (which monitor blood pressure). Sensory neuron cell bodies are located in superior and inferior ganglia.
X Vagus Nerves Function
Mixed nerves.Nearly all motor fibers are parasympathetic efferents, except those serving skeletal muscles of pharynx and larynx (involved in swallowing). Parasympathetic motor fibers supply heart, lungs, and abdominal viscera and are involved in regulating heart rate, breathing, and digestive system activity. Transmit sensory impulses from thoracic and abdominal viscera, from the aortic arch baroreceptors (for blood pressure) and the carotid and aortic bodies (chemoreceptors for respiration), and taste buds on the epiglottis. Carry proprioceptor fibers from muscles of larynx and pharynx.
XI Accessory Nerves Function
Mixed nerves, but primarily motor in function. Supply motor fibers to trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles, which together move head and neck, and convey proprioceptor impulses from same muscles.
XII Hypoglossal Nerves Function
Mixed nerves, but primarily motor in function. Carry somatic motor fibers to intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of tongue, and proprioceptor fibers from same muscles to brain stem. Hypoglossal nerve control allows tongue movements that mix and manipulate food during chewing, and contribute to swallowing and speech.
These are the tiny sensory nerves (filaments) of smell, which run from the nasal mucosa to synapse with the olfactory bulbs. Note that the olfactory bulbs and tracts are brain structures and not part of cranial nerve I.
Because this sensory nerve of vision develops as an outgrowth of the brain, it is really a brain tract.
The name oculomotor means "eye mover". This nerve supplies four of the six extrinsic muscles that move the eyeball in the orbit.
The term trochlear means "pulley" and it innervates an extrinsic eye muscle that loops through a pulley-shaped ligament in the orbit.
Three (tri) branches spring from this, the largest cranial nerve. It supplies sensory fibers to the face and motor fibers to the chewing muscles.
This nerve controls the extrinsic eye muscle that abducts the eyeball (turns it laterally).
A large nerve that innervates muscles of facial expression (among other things).
This mostly sensory nerve for hearing and balance was formerly called the auditory nerve.
The name glossopharyngeal means "tongue and pharynx", the structures that this nerve helps to innervate.
This nerve's name means "wanderer" or "vagabond", and it is the only cranial nerve to extend beyond the head and neck to the thorax and abdomen.
Considered an accessory part of the vagus nerve, this nerve was formerly called the spinal accessory nerve.
The name hypoglossal means under the tongue. This nerve runs inferior to the tongue and innervates the tongue muscles.
Olfactory - Sensory
Optic - Sensory
Oculomotor - Motor
Trochlear - Motor
Trigeminal - Both
Abducens - Motor
Facial - Both
Vestibulocochlear - Both
Glossopharyngeal - Both
Vagus - Both
Accessory - Motor
Hypoglossal - Motor
Sensory - Olfactory
Sensory - Optic
Motor - Oculomotor
Motor - Trochlear
Both - Trigeminal
Motor - Abducens
Both - Facial
Both - Vestibulocochlear
Both - Glossopharyngeal
Both - Vagus
Motor - Accessory
Motor - Hypoglossal
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