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ONRAMPS US HISTORY MIDTERM (FALL)
Terms in this set (57)
-Nathaniel Bacon grouped together and angry mob to burn Jamestown and Indian settlements as a protest for the reason that they didn't get any protection from the government.
-It was the first rebellion in the American Colonies in which the frontiersmen took part. Also, it hastened the hardening of racial lines dealing with slavery, because this rebellion involved both black and white indentured servants which worried the ruling class.
-outcome=He burned Jamestown to the ground and then bacon sudden illness and death ended the rebellion and hanged bacon's followers
Salem Witch Trials
It was in the years 1692-1693, in Salem Massachusetts.
Took place in Philadelphia met between May and September of 1787 to address the problems of the weak central government that existed under the Articles of Confederation.(1787-1789)
Number of periods of religious revival in American religious history.
Battle of Saratoga
This battle was the turning point of the American Revolution. The US gained military support from the French, and began to win battles.
Loyalists vs. Patriots
The revolutionary war split the people of the American colonies into two groups: the loyalists and the patriots.
Federalist (Hamilton) vs. Anti-Federalist (Jefferson) Argument
*Anti-Federalist: were those who opposed the development of a strong federal government and the ratification of the Constitution in 1788, preferring instead for power to remain in the hands of state and local governments.
*Federalist: wanted a stronger national government and the ratification of the Constitution to help properly manage the debt and tensions following the American Revolution.
Interaction of Colonial Government
Charters of royal colonies provided for direct rule by the king. A colonial legislature was elected by property holding males. But governors were appointed by the colonists.
Treatment of Women & African Americans
Women had no rights. African Americans were used as slaves on plantations of the colonists.
Power of rich vs. poor
-Upper Class: Elite, could vote, held high public office.
-Middle Class: could vote, few held public office, but most were skill tradesmen, ministers, doctors and lawyers.
-Lower Class: manual workers, tenant farmers, and could not vote.
-Indentured Servants: convicts, could not vote, be married, or buy nor sell anything.
-Slaves: had no rights
1st permanent British colony in the New World. Founded by Virginia Company and received charter from King James I.
What were the early problems that Jamestown endured?
famine, diseases and war with the Indians.
Why did Jamestown transition to a royal colony? (1624)
After a series of events, including a 1622 war with the Powhatan Indians and misconduct among some of the Virginia Company leaders in England, the Virginia Company was dissolved by the king in 1624, and Virginia became a royal colony. It was successful until 1699
Pilgrims- (separatist's puritans)
first sizable permanent English settlement in the New England. Ultimately, the colony was merged with the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1691 to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
What were the early hardships that the Plymouth Colony endured?
-King Phillips war 1775
-Native attacked colonists
Massachusetts Bay (1630)
-Puritans wanting reform Anglican
-Gov Winthrop city on a hill
-Religious tolerance 4 puritans
-Salem witch trials (elite women against poor women)
What were the limits to Colonial Democracy
-Ruled by a king (colonist =no say in laws)
Charter given to George Calvert to escape rule of King James 1,
established as the 1st proprietary colony
Protestant Revolt (late 1600s)
-Catholic church needed to be revived; leaders included -Martin Luther, John Calvin, and King Henry VIII
-Questioned church ability of Christian practice
-Wanted political and religious redistribution of power
Rhode Island (1644)
-Founded by roger Williams
-Complete religious freedom
Quakers and William Penn
* religious group who settled Pennsylvania - very tolerant and nonviolent
- Places Settled: Pennsylvania, Delaware Valley (River)
Religion: Important - Society of Friends (extremely tolerant, progressive)
- Style: Plain
0 - Architecture: Quaker stone buildings (Ellicott City)
- Power Relations: Democratic, Egalitarian, Equal
What were the 3 factors that the increased demand for more slaves?
1) Bacon's rebellion
Bacon's rebellion was one factor that led to the massive increase in the importation of African slaves during the early eighteenth century. The rebellion was a result of poor white former servants who desperately wanted money and land. After the uprising, the colonists decided that the white workers were too likely to cause civil unrest in the colonies. Therefore, they began searching for other servants who would not start another revolt such as Bacon's Rebellion. They came to the conclusion that the African servants would be better suited for their needs.
2) Slave price
For a long period of time, African slaves were not prominent in the Chesapeake colonies because they were unaffordable. If an African slave were to die on the journey to America, the farmers would have paid a large sum of money for nothing. The white slaves were less costly, so if they died on the journey, there was less risk involved. However, as the demand rose for African slaves, more companies started to sell them. Soon, the companies lowered prices in order to compete with other companies and the slaves became more accessible.
3) Rise of Wages
Another contributing factor to the importation of African slaves in the first half of the seventeen hundreds was the rise of wages in England. When the wages rose, the indentured servants had no reason to go to the New World because the economy was so good in England. As the amount of indentured servants decreased, the amount of African slaves increased.
List some of the restrictions put on slaves.
Can't preach about the gospel unless a respectable slave was present. Blacks could no longer own property.
A 3-part merchant's route in which MANUFACTURED GOODS were traded for SLAVES and thusly SUGAR/COFFEE/CHOCOLATE
The second leg of the triangular trade and a trip meant to "break the will" of the slaves
Where were new immigrants settling?
-Newly arrived immigrants tended to stay in the least desirable areas, where housing was cheap
-The areas often had factories and shops that provided their livelihoods
-Immigrants crowded into tenement buildings and other run-down slum housing
List 4 general characteristics of the development of the 13 colonies.
-they lived longer than England and other colonies, emphasized family, women gave up property rights once married, less racial diversity
What was life for men like in the colonies?
Men were expected to provide adequately for their families and to control the behavior of their families. ... Men assisted their wives in the literacy instruction of their young children.
The Great Awakening (1730s & 1740s)
religious revival in the 1730-40s, helped by Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield; inspired controversy over emotionalism/revivalism versus traditionalist Protestantism, nevertheless united the Americans as a people
-The enlightenment was a time in the 1700's in Europe when people began to question old ideas and search for knowledge. The name Enlightenment refers to the light of knowledge that supposedly replaces the darkness of superstition and ignorance. Enlightenment thinkers believed that science and reason could improve people's lives.
What did the structure of government look like in the colonies?
Colonial Governments. Each of the thirteen colonies had a charter, or written agreement between the colony and the king of England or Parliament. Charters of royal colonies provided for direct rule by the king. A colonial legislature was elected by property holding males.
Who was allowed to vote in Colonial America?
Most white males that owned property.
Seven Year's War (1754-1763)
- King William's War (1689-1697) and Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) pitted British colonists against French fur traders (used primitive guerilla warfare). French gained support from Indians and Spain. The Brits were able to sandwich the French between the colonies and Spanish territory. The British eventually gained extra land, leading to the colonies receiving 'salutary neglect'
-The Ohio River Valley was pivotal in keeping the French Empire together. But, 1749, British Colonists (among them, George Washington) gained legal "rights" to the area. Washington, as lieutenant colonel, was sent with a militia to claim the land in 1754. A fight emerges and the French surrender. The French & Indian War breaks out
-Fought between France and England, in North America, Europe, West Indies, Philippines, Africa, and on the Ocean. Officially declared in 1756.
Pontiac's Rebellion (1763)
Pontiac's War was launched in 1763 by a loose confederation of elements of Native American tribes, primarily from the Great Lakes region.
Proclamation of 1763
The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War
Sugar Act (1764)
Parliament imposed new regulations and taxes on the colonists to pay for the debt they had after the French and Indian War. The first was the Sugar Act of 1764, which established a number of new duties and which also contained provisions aimed at deterring molasses smugglers. Even though the Sugar Act actually lowered the duty on molasses coming into the colonies from the West Indies, this new regulation, unlike previous ones, was to be strictly enforced. Thus, it became more difficult for colonial shippers to avoid committing even minor violations of the Sugar Acts.
Quartering Act (1765)
An act by the British that allowed them to have a standing army in America in peacetime l, made colonists pay for soldiers food and housing and could be stationed in colonists homes
March 24 1765
British felt that they were losing control of American colonies so they thought of they send troops then the colonist would settle
Stamp Act (1765)
required colonists to purchase special stamped paper for every legal document, license, newspaper, pamphlet, and almanac, and imposed special "stamp duties" on packages of playing cards and dice
This was the first time the British government sought to impose a DIRECT tax, as distinct from an EXTERNAL tax, on the colonists
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
The Stamp Act Congress or First Congress of the American Colonies was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765 in New York City, consisting of representatives from some of the British colonies in North America; it was the first gathering of elected representatives from several of the American colonies to devise a unified protest against new British taxation.
The Townshend Acts (1767)
Parliament gave the commissioners the power to search homes and private warehouses for smuggled items that had entered the colonies without payment of the customs duties
Passed in June of 1767. Taxed lead, glass, paper, tea, and paint. Parliament knew that collecting and enforcing the taxes would be difficult, so they hired royal customs commissioners to do that
The townshend duties would be like the stamp act, be repealed, except for the duty on tea, which would remain as a symbol of parliament's right to tax
Boston Massacre (1770)
An Incident that led to the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5th 1770.
Trails ended quickly one took place 8 months after the incident. Defened by John Adams, Preston was fully acquitted second decision resulted in two convictions, the Jury assembled for the trial did not have a single bostonian.
Boston Tea Party (1773)
a town of British colony of massachusetts against East India Company that controlled all the tea imported into the colonies. December 16, 1773 the Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to britain, a group of colonist got onto the ships in destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor.
Coercive Acts (1774)
The intolerable acts were passed in 1770's in response to the Boston Tea Party, where the colonists dumped $10,000 of tea in the harbor. The acts were passed against the colony of Massachusetts until Boston could repay the money. The acts passed by british parliament closed the port of boston, banned all town meetings, and put General Thomas Gage as the new governor of the colony. The significance of the acts was that they unified the colonies together against England.
Quebec Act (1774)
The Quebec Act was also passed in 1774, but was not apart of the Intolerable Acts. It gave Catholic French Canadians religious freedom and restored the French form of civil law; this law nullified many of the Western claims of the coast colonies by extending the boundaries of the province of Quebec to the Ohio River on the south and to the Mississippi River on the west.
First Continental Congress (September 1774)
All colonies but Georgia went to this Congress in Philadelphia in 1774 to determine how the colonies should react to what, from their viewpoint, seemed to pose an alarming threat to their rights and liberties; no talk of secession from England, just wanted to protest parliamentary acts and restore the relationship they had with Britain before the French and Indian War.
Lexington and Concord (April 18,1775)
In Lexington 70 Minutemen were lead by captain John Parker who positioned his men for an attack on the red coats. When out of nowhere a shot was fired and the shot was known as "the shot heard around the world". Nobody knew what side it came from, but it let loose both sides. That day 18 Minutemen lost their lives. After Lexington the British troops continued their march to ward Concord Massachusetts. The word had spread to colonists that the British were on their way to Concord. All along the road waiting for the red coats were farmers, blacksmiths, saddle makers, and clerks. They hid behind rocks, trees, building, and fences. When the British marched their way to concord the groups attacked. By the time the redcoats got through Concord 174 British troops were wounded and 73 were dead. Then they knew the war for the Americans independence had begun.
Second Continental Congress (May 1775)
*they authorized the printing of money
*they set up a post office
*established a continental army
*sent a formal request to King George III, asking for peace and for their rights
*delegates from every colony except Rhode Island went
Common Sense (1776)
In Common Sense, Thomas Paine argues for American independence. His argument begins with more general, theoretical reflections about government and religion, then progresses onto the specifics of the colonial situation.
Declaration of Independence (adopted July 4, 1776)
an act of the Second Continental Congress, adopted on July 4, 1776, which declared that the Thirteen Colonies in North America were "Free and Independent States" and that "all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved."
Articles of Confederation (ratified 1781)
this document, the nation's first constitution, was adopted by the second continental congress in 1781 during the revolution. the document was limited because states held most of the power, and congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage. This document officially established the government of the union of the thirteen states.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
The treaty was represented in Paris and signed so that the U.S. could have its independence. The treaty had also said that any loyalist who had land was to be taken away and returned to the U.S. By that time Britain made peace with France and Spain. The U.S. Was no longer part Great Britain it was its own nation. The U.S. Could now have its own government and laws. The new nation began to expand and the British promised to remove all British troops. Great Britain respected the U.S. Enough to let them fish in waters off of Canada. Being grateful by the offer from Britain the U.S. Agreed that British merchants can gain their debt money that were needed to payed by Americans. Now that the war was over the United States could live in peace and happiness.
Shay's Rebellion (1786-87)
this conflict in Massachusetts caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working; uprising led by Daniel Shays in an effort to prevent courts from foreclosing on the farms of those who could not pay the taxes.In late August 1786, farmers in western Massachusetts rebelled by closing down several county courthouses to prevent farm foreclosures, and they also marched on the state supreme court.
US constitution (september 1787)
Replaced the articles of confederation, been in use ever since created at the constitutional convention
The Federalist Papers
Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pen-name Publius (was the last consul of the Roman Republic before is was overthrown and became a dictatorship).
Ratification of the Constitution (1787-1790)
-a process to approve or reject the constitution
-reject=wants the articles of confederation to continue
-voters elected conventions in each state
Bill of Rights (1789, adopted 1791)
Guarantees the freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly and the right to petition government.
Guarantees the right to bear arms.
Prohibits the quartering of soldiers in homes in peacetime.
Prohibits unreasonable searches and seizures.
Requires grand jury indictment for a serious crime, bans double jeopardy, no loss of life, liberty or property without due process of law.
Guarantees the right to a speedy, impartial public trial in criminal cases with counsel and the right to cross examine.
Guarantees the right to jury trial in civil suits involving $20.00 or more.
Prohibits excessive bail or fines or cruel or unusual punishment
Rights not listed in other amendments are not necessarily involved.
She was a Puritan spiritual adviser, mother of 14, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
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