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Arts and Humanities
Leadership Ch 1-3
Terms in this set (99)
What is light & shadow?
Light and shadow represent the power of leaders to either illuminate the lives of their followers or cast them in darkness
How can leaders cast light?
by mastering ethical challenges of leadership
How can leaders cast darkness?
(1) abuse power,
(2) hoard privileges,
(3) mismanage information,
(4) act inconsistently,
(5) misplace or betray loyalties, and
(6) fail to assume responsibilities.
What are toxic leaders?
those who engage in destructive behaviors and who exhibit dysfunctional personal characteristics
What are some toxic leaders behaviors and characteristics?
leaving followers off worse, lack of integrity, stifling criticism, enormous egos
How many type of bad leaders are there?
What are the 7 types of bad leaders?
Describe an incompetent leader
Lack motivation or ability to sustain effective action
careless and or sloppy
Lack educational or emotional intelligence
Doesn't function well under stress
Example: Former defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld
Give an example of an incompetent leader
Former defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld
Describe a rigid leader
competent but unyielding
Unable to accept new ideas
Doesn't accept new information or changing conditions
Example: former president of South Africa Thabo Mbeki
Give an example off a rigid leader
former president of South Africa Thabo Mbeki
Describe an intemperate leader
lacks self control
example: Toronto Mayor Rob Ford
Give an example of an intemperate leader
Toronto Mayor Rob Ford
Uncaring or unkind
Ignore or downplay the needs, wants, or wishes of their followers
May yell, berate, or belittle
Example: Former hotel magnate Leona Helmsley
callous leader example
Former hotel magnate Leona Helmsley
Lie, cheat, or steal
Put self-interest ahead of public interest
Example: The top officers of FIFA
corrupt leader example
top officers off FIFA
draws clear boundaries between the welfare of his or her immediate group or organization and outsiders
Example of former president Bill Clinton
Insular leader example
Former president Bill Clinton
Commit atrocities, using their power to inflict severe physical or psychological harm
Example: Head of ISIS Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Evil leader example
Head of ISIS Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
How many clusters of destructive leader behaviors are there?
What are the 7 clusters of destructive leader behaviors?
Cluster 1: leader makes poor decisions; lies and engages in unethical behavior; cant deal w/ new technology, fails at prioritizing
Cluster 2: leader lacks critical skills; cannot motivate subordinates
Cluster 3: leader makes good decisions but is overcontrolling; micromanages
Cluster 4: leader cannot deal with conflict; plays favorites, behaves inconsistently
Cluster 5: leader is not good or bad, dont seek info from others, dont change their mind or coordinate their followers
Cluster 6: leader isolates the group from the rest of the organization
Cluster 7: leader is brutal, bullies and lies
reach organizational goals while abusing followers
they care for welfare of subordinates at the expense of organizational goals
act against the interests of both subordinates and the organization
engage in passive and indirect negative behavior
How many ethical challenges of followership is there?
The Challenge of Obligation
The Challenge of Obedience
The Challenge of Cynicism
The Challenge of Dissent
The Challenge of Bad News
What is the shadow of power?
Power is the foundation for influence attempts.
The more power we have, the more likely others are to comply with our wishes.
Power comes from a variety of sources.
There are advantages and disadvantages of using each power type
Uses bonuses, raises, or threats to get people to go along
Based on attracting others rather than forcing them to comply; leaders who use soft power set a good example
combo of hard & soft power
What are the 5 power bases?
based on penalties or punishments
based on being able to give something valuable to others
resides in the position, not the person, ex. police officers or drill sergeants
knowledge, skills, and education build expert power
Referent/Role Model Power
power rests on the admiration one person has for another
Brutal bosses engage in what type of behaviors?
The greater a leader's power, the greater the potential for abuse.
Power makes it easier for impulsive, selfish people to pursue their goals without considering the needs of others.
Those in power protect their positions by attacking those they perceive as threats.
Powerful leaders are prone to biased judgments.
Wise Use of Power
Leaders consider what types of power they should use and when, and for what purposes.
Need to determine how much power to keep and how much to give away.
Leaders must recognize and resist the dangers posed by possessing too much power while making sure that followers aren't corrupted by having too little
Shadow of Privilege
The greater the leader's power, generally the greater the rewards he or she receives.
Over the past 30 years, the average pay for chief executives of large U.S. firms skyrocketed to $15.2 million (including salary, bonuses, stock, and stock option grants).
The typical U.S. worker now makes less, when adjusted for inflation, than he or she did in the 1970s
Shadow of Mismanaged Info
Leaders cast shadows not only when they lie but also when they mismanage information and engage in deceptive practices.
Knowledge is a mixed blessing.
Give in to the temptation to lie?
Privacy issues raise additional ethical concerns.
Employers are gathering more information about employee behavior on and off the job.
Leaders must also consider ethical issues related to the image they hope to project to followers.
Impression management is integral to effective leadership because followers have images of ideal leaders called prototypes.
Impression management can be used to reach immoral ends.
Deny having knowledge that is in their possession,
Withhold information that followers need,
Use information solely for personal benefit,
Violate the privacy rights of followers,
Release information to the wrong people, and
Put followers in ethical binds by preventing them from releasing information that others have a legitimate right to know.
Shadow of Inconsistency
The Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory is based on the notion that a leader develops a closer relationship with one group of followers than with others.
"In-Group"-High levels of trust, mutual influence, and support characterize their exchanges with the leader.
"Out-Group"-Expected to carry out the basic requirements of their job.
LMX theorists have begun to explore ways in which leaders can develop close relationships with all of their followers.
Shadow of Misplaced Info & Broken Loyalties
Leaders must weigh a host of loyalties or duties when making choices.
Obligations to their families
Their local communities
The larger society
* Example: Timberland
Loyalties can be broken as well as misplaced.
Many of history's villains are traitors: Judas Iscariot, Benedict Arnold, etc.
Leaders who violated the trust of followers: Enron CEO Kenneth Lay, the leaders of Lehman Brothers
Employees are often victimized by corporate betrayal motivated by the bottom line.
Slashing salaries and benefits
Laying off even the most loyal workers
Shutting down domestic plants and research facilities
Opening new operations overseas
Shadow of Irresponsibility
responsible for their own actions, or in the case of a self-directed work team, for those of their peers
they are held accountable for the performance of their entire department or unit
How do we determine the extent of a leader's responsibility?
Shadow casters include
1. Unhealthy motivations
2. Personality disorders
3. Faulty decision making caused by mistaken assumptions and failure of moral imagination
4. Failure of moral imagination
5. Moral disengagement
6. Lack of ethical expertise
7. Contextual (group, organizational, societal) pressures that encourage people to set their personal standards aside
Internal Enemies or Monsters
Monster 1: Insecurity
Monster 2: Battleground Mentality
Monster 3: Functional Atheism
Monster 4: Fear
Monster 5: Denying Death
Monster 6: Evil
Selfishness (driven by self-centeredness and manifests through pride and greed)
Pride: reference to Greek mythology
Greed: driven to earn more and to accumulate additional perks, focuses attention on making the numbers
One group of scholars argues that we can gain a better understanding of the process of destructive leadership by identifying the factors that make followers susceptible to the influence of destructive superiors.
They place susceptible subordinates into two categories: conformers and colluders
Conformers engage in destructive behavior while obeying their leaders. Colluders actively support or contribute to the leader's destructive mission.
Conformers: Lost Souls: These individuals are needy and are vulnerable to destructive leaders because they have basic unmet needs.
Conformers: Authoritarians: Authoritarians believe that leaders have a right to demand obedience, and it is their belief in the legitimacy of the leader that triggers their obedience.
Conformers: Bystanders: Bystanders, perhaps the largest group of susceptible followers, are generally passive and motivated by fear.
Colluders: Opportunists: Opportunists carry out the destructive directives of their leaders because they believe that they will be rewarded for doing so; they are ambitious, greedy, and manipulative, lacking in self-control.
Colluders: Acolytes: Acolytes are "true believers"; they actively partner with the leader because they share the leader's goals and values.
According to a number of psychologists, narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy are the "Dark Triad" behind the dark side of leadership
A certain degree is normal; the problem is high levels of this trait
Highly self-centered; skilled at manipulating others to achieve their ends
Total lack of conscience; desire for power and wealth
Faulty Decision Making
Executives have faulty theories about how the world operates, about other people, and about themselves.
Theories About How the World Operates: These assumptions have to do with determining the consequences of choices, judging risks, and identifying causes.
Theories About Other People: Ethnocentrism and stereotyping are particularly damaging.
Ethnocentrism: the tendency to think that we are better than "they" are, that our way of doing things is superior to "theirs"
Stereotypes: our beliefs about other groups of people
Theories about ourselves
These faulty theories involve self-perceptions
Their self-images are often seriously distorted
Leaders tend to favor themselves
Overconfidence is a problem
Likely to interpret new information according to their existing biases
Failure of Moral Imagination
Many ethicists believe that moral imagination—sensitivity to moral issues and options—is key to ethical behavior and works hand in hand with moral reasoning in the decision-making process.
Facilitates ethical reasoning because it helps leaders step away from their typical mental scripts or schemas and to recognize the moral elements of events.
Moral imagination enhances moral reasoning by encouraging the generation of novel alternatives.
Moral disengagement helps account for the fact that individuals can have a clear sense of right and wrong yet engage in immoral activities
These individuals convince themselves that their immoral conduct is moral, they minimize their role in causing harm, and they devalue the victims of their destructive behavior
Immoral to Moral Conduct
1. Moral justification: Leaders persuade themselves that their harmful behavior is actually moral and beneficial.
2. Euphemistic labeling: Euphemistic language has a sanitizing function, making harmful behavior appear more respectable and reducing personal responsibility.
3. Advantageous comparison: Contrast involves comparing unethical or criminal acts with even worse activities, thus making them appear more tolerable.
4. Displacement of responsibility: These individuals often put the blame on someone else so as to minimize their responsibility for doing damage to others.
5. Diffusion of responsibility: Diffusing or spreading out responsibility also lessens personal accountability for immoral behavior.
6. Disregard or distortion of consequences: Hiding suffering is one way to disregard the consequences of harmful actions.
7. Dehumanization: It is easier to mistreat others if they are seen as less than fully human.
8. Attribution of blame: Blaming others is an expedient way to excuse unethical behavior.
Lack of Expertise
Leaders may unintentionally cast shadows because they lack the necessary knowledge, skills, and experience.
We may not have ever followed a formal, step-by-step approach to solving an ethical problem in a group.
We may not know what ethical perspectives or frameworks can be applied to ethical dilemmas.
Conformity is a problem for many small groups.
Some groups might pressure dissenters, shield themselves from negative feedback, keep silent when they disagree, and so on.
Top managers at some organizations may fire employees who talk about ethical issues so that they can claim ignorance if followers do act unethically.
Contextual Pressures Key Concepts
Socialization: The workplace socialization process may blind members to the consequences of their actions.
Stepping out of the Shadows
Need to look inward to address our motivations
We also need to improve our ethical decision making
Resist negative contextual influences at the same time we create healthy ethical climates
View your ethical development as part of your overall development as a leader
3 Elements to increase your ethical competence
Feedback about how well you handle ethical dilemmas, how others perceive your character, and how your decisions affect followers
You need the challenges and practice that come from moving into new leadership positions
You need the support of others to maximize your development
Become an Ethical authority
Have a broader variety of schemas to draw from
See the world differently than novices
Experts have different skill sets
Learn in a well-structured environment
More experience means you will get better at solving ethical problems and better able to explain your choices
Put in the necessary time and focused effort
Ethical Sensitivity (recognition of ethical problems)
Understanding emotional expression
Taking the perspective of others
Connecting to others
Responding to diversity
Controlling social bias
Ethical Judgment (decision making)
Understanding ethical problems
Using codes and identifying judgment criteria
Reflecting on process and outcome
Coping and resiliency
Ethical Focus (motivation to act ethically)
Finding meaning in life
Valuing traditions and institutions
Developing ethical identity and integrity
Ethical Action (following through on moral decisions)
Resolving conflicts and problems
Taking initiative as a leader
Virtues & Virtue Ethics
To keep from projecting our internal enemies and selfishness on others, we need to go on the offensive, replacing or managing our unhealthy motivations through the development of positive leadership traits or qualities called virtues.
Premise of virtue ethics is good people (those of high moral character) make good, moral choices.
More on virtue ethics
Those who promote virtue ethics start with the end in mind.
These proponents develop a description or portrait of the ideal person (leader) and identify the admirable qualities or tendencies that make up the character of this ethical role model
They always suggest ways in which others can acquire these virtues
1. Virtues are not easily developed or discarded but persist over time
2. Virtues shape the way leaders see and behave
3. Virtues operate largely independently of the situation
4. Virtues help leaders live better lives
Elements of Character
Character strengths for leaders include the following:
Compassion (Kindness, Generosity, Love)
Of all the virtues, courage is no doubt the most universally admired.
—Philosopher Andre Comte-Sponville
Courage is overcoming fear in order to do the right thing.
Leaders who are courageous acknowledge the dangers and anxiety they face.
They move forward despite the risks and costs.
The Courage to Assume Responsibility
Followers must be accountable both for themselves and for the organization as a whole.
The Courage to Serve
Courageous followers support their leaders through hard, often unglamorous, work.
The Courage to Challenge
Courageous followers need to confront leaders acting in a destructive manner.
More on courageous followership
The Courage to Participate in Transformation
They need to take personal responsibility and visualize the outcomes of the transformation: better health, more productive employees, higher self-esteem, restored relationships.
The Courage to Leave
When leaders are unwilling to change, courageous followers may take principled action by resigning from the organization.
To use things, therefore, and take pleasure in them as far as possible—not, of course, to the point where we are disgusted with them, for there is no pleasure in that—this is the part of a wise man.
—Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza
Moderation is key to practicing temperance
Temperance is the ability to control emotions and pleasure
Unfortunately, a great many leaders are intemperate; they are unable to control their anger and rail at subordinates
Wisdom & Prudence aka Practical Wisdom
We judge a person's wisdom by his hope.
—American poet Ralph Waldo Emerson
. . . the goal of human life is to be good. Prudence assists us in getting there.
—Baldwin-Wallace College professors
Alan Kolp and Peter Rea
Wisdom draws upon knowledge and experience to promote the common good over both the short term and the long term.
Prudence is especially important to leaders who make decisions for the collective fate.
Justice is sweet and musical; but injustice is harsh and discordant.
—Writer Henry David Thoreau
Two Components of Justice:
1. A sense of obligation to the common good
2.The fair and equal treatment of others
Hope is not the conviction that something will turn out well, but the certainty that something makes sense, regardless of how it turns out.
—Former Czech Republic president
Optimists expect positive outcomes
They are more confident than pessimists
They acknowledge the reality of situations and take steps for improvement
Optimism is an essential quality for leaders
Integrity lies at the very heart of understanding what leadership is.
—Business professors Joseph Badaracco
and Richard Ellsworth
Integrity is defined as wholeness or completeness
These leaders are true to themselves and are consistent with what they say publicly as well as how they think and act privately
They are honest in their dealings with others
Let us be a little humble; let us think that the truth may not be entirely with us.
—Indian prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru
Because of the failure of many celebrity CEOs, there is a strong argument for leaders to be humble
Some believe that humility strikes a balance between having an overly low and having an overly high opinion of the self
More on humility
Three Components of Humility
1. Self awareness: objectively assessing his or her own strengths as a leader as well as their limitations
2. Openness: product of knowing one's weaknesses; being open to new ideas and knowledge
3. Transcendence: acknowledging that there is a greater power than the self
Compassion- kindness generosity love
All happiness in the world comes from serving others; all sorrow in the world comes from acting selfishly.
—Leadership expert Margaret Wheatley
An orientation that puts others ahead of the self
Value others regardless of whether or not they get anything in return
Journey to humanitarian leadership
The seven choice points that several humanitarians faced on their journeys to helping others:
Choice 1: Leveraging life experiences.
Choice 2: Sense of fairness.
Choice 3: Believe that we can matter.
Choice 4: Open to an opportunity.
Choice 5: Taking the first small step.
Choice 6: Perseverance.
Choice 7: Leading the way.
Forming a moral identity
Virtues need to be embedded into our self-concepts and behavior to develop a moral identity.
This is both a trait and a state
Act consistently regardless of the situation
Those with a highly developed sense of moral identity believe that to betray ethical values is to betray themselves
Finding Role Models
We often learn what it means to be virtuous by observing and imitating exemplary leaders.
If we are to develop worthy character, we need examples of those who demonstrate virtue on a daily basis.
Because character is developed over time through a series of moral choices and actions, we need examples of those who live consistent moral lives.
Character building continued
Moral Episodes v. Moral Processes
Moral episodes are made up of moral crises and moral confrontations.
Moral processes consist of moral projects and moral work.
More on character building
Moral exemplars' common characteristics:
Certainty: Moral exemplars are sure of what they believe and take responsibility for acting on their convictions.
Positivity: They take a positive approach to life even in the face of hardship; they enjoy what they do and are optimistic about the future.
Unity of self and moral goals: They do not distinguish between their personal identity and their ethical convictions.
Hearing stories/living shared stories
Fictional stories foster character development
Discuss the many ways this is done
Shared narratives both explain and persuade
Stories are lived and told
Part of our moral identity comes from living up to the roles we play in the stories we tell
Learning from hardship
Hardship and suffering can play an important role in developing character.
Hardship has been identified as one of the factors contributing to leadership development.
Hardships, along with novelty, difficult goals, and conflict, challenge people.
Leaders can develop the fastest when they encounter situations that stretch or challenge them.
Categories of hardship events
1. Business mistakes and failures
2. Career setbacks
3. Personal trauma
4. Problem employees
Tips to learn from specific failure
1. Identify a significant failure from your professional or personal life and summarize the failure in a sentence (be sure to use the word failure).
2. Describe how you felt and thought about the failure immediately after it happened.
3. Move forward in time to identify any positive outcomes that came out of the failure, including skills you acquired, lessons you learned, and any relationships you established.
4. Identify how the failure changed or shaped you as a person, noting any new traits or attitudes you have adopted and whether you are any more mature now than before the failure event.34
Habits are repeated routines or practices designed to foster virtuous behavior.
Habit 1: Be proactive
Habit 2: Begin with the end in mind
Habit 3: Put first things first
Habit 4: Think win-win
Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood
Habit 6: Synergize
Habit 7: Sharpen the saw
Nine cairns (or markers) for creating personal purpose:
1. Call your purpose; listen for guidance
2. Find a sacred place
3. See time as continuous; begin with the child and move with the present
4. Identify special skills and talents; accept imperfections
5. Trust your intuition
6. Open the door when opportunity knocks
7. Find your passion and make it happen
8. Write your life story; imagine a great leader
9. Honor your legacy; one step at a time
Developing a mission statement is the best way to keep the end or destination in mind.
Our values serve as a moral compass to guide us.
Values provide a frame of reference, helping us to set priorities and to distinguish between right and wrong.
Many discussions in organizations have an underlying value component.
Working with a list of values can be helpful.
Identifying values continued
Six Major Value Types (Prototypes are examples of occupations that best fit into the given orientation)
1. Theoretical: intellectuals who want to discover the truth
2. Economic: usefulness is the most important criterion
3. Aesthetic: value form and harmony
4. Social: love of others is the highest value
5. Political: power driven
6. Religious: seek unity through understanding and relating to the cosmos as a whole
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