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151 terms

Carter Intro Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
_____ and ______ produce an extremely high number of responses.
fixed/variable-ratio
An example of the _________ approach to trait theory is Jung's designation of introversion/extroversion traits.
theoretical
The preoperational stage is when children show __________.
egocentrism
"The ________ stage is when we only perceive and interpret the world with our senses no ""thinking"" is going on."
sensorimotor
________ is the concept that toddlers develop which allows them to lie.
Theory of mind
________ is when we fit new information into previous concepts without changing them.
Assimilation
The _________ is when children first develop the concept of conservation.
preoperational
The preoperational is when children first develop the concept of _________.
conservation
The __________ stage is when children show egocentrism.
preoperational
An example of this is when children think that you can see the TV as well as they can even though they're in front of it.
Egocentrism
A high ______ score indicates that the baby does not need assistance.
A.P.G.A.R. test
The _________ stage is when children develop theory of mind.
preoperational
The _______ stage is when we first develop object permanence.
sensorimotor
__________ is when children have no idea that others perceive different sensations than they do.
egocentrism
________ is the idea that volume remains the same despite changes in shape.
Conservation
"_________ were originally applied because it was thought babies needed them to ""grow properly"""
Swaddling clothes
___________ is when we try to fit new information into our previous concepts and find that we have to create a new category to fit it into.
Accomodation
Piaget believed that children learn by _________ and ________ information
assimilating accomodating
________ is the concept that toddlers develop which allows them to understand that other people have minds just like their own.
Theory of mind
___________ is the idea that something exists when we no longer perceive it.
Object permanence
The sensorimotor stage is when first develop _________.
object permanence
_________ is an adolescent's idea that there is always someone watching and judging their actions.
Imaginary audience
________ is an adolescent's idea that their own lives are vastly important and even mythic.
Personal fable
__________ is an adolescent's idea that they are immune to risk.
Invincibility fable
_________ is the picking of an identity and sticking to it.
Commitment
_______ is the individual's confrontation with new ideas and experiences which help the individual decide their identity.
Struggle
__________ is the result of struggle without commitment (yet). This is the condition of most college students.
Identity moratorium
__________ is the result of struggle and commitment.
Identity achievement
__________ is the result of commitment but no struggle for example when someone else decides your career.
Identity foreclosure
__________ is the result of no struggle or commitment living with your mom.
Identity diffusion
___________ are the reproductive organs and external genitalia that mature during puberty.
Primary sex characteristics
________ is the period of sexual maturation.
puberty
________ is a woman's first period.
menarche
_____________ are the nonreproductive traits (body hair deeper voice wider hips) that develop during puberty.
Secondary sex characteristics
________ is a man's first ejaculation.
spermarche
_________ is period between the beginning of the start of sexual maturity to when we are considered adults by society.
Adolescence
_______ is when a woman's menstrual cycle ends usually around age 50
Menopause
A _________ produces only an orienting response.
neutral stimulus
____________ is when the conditioned response isn't evoked by a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus.
Stimulus discrimination
When a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus becomes a ___________
conditioned stimulus
An unconditioned stimulus always produces an _________.
unconditioned response
An ________ is when you simply notice something without reacting to it in any other way.
orienting response
___________ is when a stimulus similar but not the same as the conditioned stimulus still evokes the same conditioned response.
Stimulus generalization
An ______________ always produces an unconditioned response.
unconditioned stimulus
_________ is any change in an organism's behavior that results from experience.
Learning
________ is when the conditioned response gradually declines because the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated.
Extinction
Once an unconditioned response is associated with a conditioned stimulus it becomes a ___________.
conditioned response
_________ is the initial learning of an association between the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus.
Acquisition
Unconditioned responses are usually ___________ responses such as blinking or an increase in heart rate.
sympathetic nervous system
A neutral stimulus produces only an _________.
orienting response
_______ are usually sympathetic nervous system responses such as blinking or an increase in heart rate.
Unconditioned responses
A ________ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses are produced.
fixed-ratio
Removing a pleasant stimulus is a ___________
negative punisher
__________ schedules produce a post-reinforcement pause.
fixed-interval
3. Nothing will change."
Law of effect.
________ is the reinforcement of behaviors gradually closer to but not yet the same as the desired behavior.
Shaping
A _______ schedule is when a reinforcement is given only at certain equally spaced times for a response or responses.
fixed-interval
Adding an aversive stimulus is a ___________
positive punisher
A _______ schedule is when a reinforcement is given only at certain varying times for a response or responses.
variable-interval
Adding a pleasant stimulus is a ___________
positive reinforcer
A _________ is the time when there are no responses because reinforcement will not be offered again for a fixed amount of time.
post-reinforcement pause
A ________ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a random number of reponses are produced.
variable-ratio
Removing an aversive stimulus is a ___________
Negative reinforcer
The ________ is how an individual believes their behavior and its results are determined whether by luck pluck or God.
locus of control
What is Rotter's formula?
Behavior potential = f(expectancy & reinforcement value)
__________ is the idea that individuals determine their environment by their behavior but the environment also determines our behavior.
Reciprocal determination
Behavior potential = f(expectancy & reinforcement value)"
Rotter
Freud viewed personality as a system of ________
hydraulics
The basic instincts are aimed towards tension reduction which is pleasurable for the __.
Id
Freud's metaphor for his view of the mind was an iceberg with _______ above the surface and ________ and ________ below it.
conscious preconscious unconscious
An _________ is when there is tension between the id ego and superego.
intrapsychic conflict
______ are the results of the ego's attempts to satisfy the id indirectly.
Defense mechanisms
_____ is the ultimate tension reduction for the Id.
Death
The two ________ are libido and thanatos
basic instincts
_________ is a projective technique which measures intrapsychic conflict by timing the gap between a patient's hearing of a word and his saying of a random related word.
word association
The ___________ is a projective test that uses a series of ambiguous pictures which the patient must describe in order to reveal the unconscious.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The ____ or _____ model treats human emotions as energies which can be transformed but never destroyed.
hydraulic energy
A _________ uses ambiguous stimuli to reveal intrapsychic conflicts.
projective test
The two basic instincts are _______ and _________.
libido thanatos
_______ is the idea that every action we make is the result of the workings of our mind. A cigar is never just a cigar.
Psychic determinism
The basic instincts are aimed towards ________ which is pleasurable for the Id.
tension reduction
The _____ includes everything not within our awareness but still retrievable.
preconscious
_______ is the life instinct. Ex: sex exercise and art.
Libido
The _________ is a projective test in which the subject reveals his unconscious desires by interpreting random shapes.
Rosrchach inkblot test
_______ is the death instinct. Ex: agression suicide horror movies
Thanatos
_________ arise from the fact that people control their basic instincts by pushing them below the conscious level.
Unconscious motivations
The _____ includes everything not within our awareness and irretrievable through conventional methods.
unconscious
The _____ includes everything within our current awareness.
conscious
Defense mechanism ex: getting into an argument with your wife because you had a bad day at work.
displacement
________ is when we attribute our own unacceptable id impulses to someone else.
Projection
Defense mechanism ex: if you unconsciously love someone that you act like you hate.
reaction formation
"_______ is a defense mechanism in which one transfers an id impulse from one person to another. ""Taking it out"" on the wrong person."
Displacement
_______ is a defense mechanism in which the ego finds a way to express an id instinct in a way that satisfies the superego.
Sublimation
Defense mechanisms arise from the actions of ______
the ego
_______ arises from the fact that opposite emotions are equally satisfying to the id.
Reaction formation
Defense mechanism ex: becoming a surgeon if you like to cut people.
sublimation
_______ is the highest functioning most productive defense mechanism.
Sublimation
Defense mechanism ex. You unconsciously want to steal something so you think your brother is a thief.
projection
________ is a defense mechanisms in which we don't accept something that is obviously true usually about ourselves.
denial
_______ is a defense mechanism in which the opposite emotion that is actually felt is expressed.
reaction formation
The ________ and _____ complexes result from fixations in the phallic stage.
oedipus electra
The _____ stage occurs during potty training.
anal
The _______ stage is when boys learn to imitate their fathers in order to subvert them.
phallic
The oedipus and electra complexes result from fixations in the ______ stage.
phallic
The _____ stage is when the superego forms and a person first experiences shame.
anal
The ____ stage is when most needs are satisfied by sucking or crying.
oral
The _____ stage occurs before the superego has formed.
oral
________ are periods of one's life in which the majority of tension reduction for the id is satified by particular erogenous zones of the body.
Psychosexual stages
_______ occur when you receive too much or too little tension reduction during a particular psychosexual stage.
Fixations
The _____ stage is when the mother is the main source of tension reduction and the father becomes a threat.
phallic
The first three psychosexual stages are....
Oral anal phallic
A fixation in the anal stage can lead to __________ or _________.
anal retentiveness (over cleanliness) anal expulsiveness (messiness)
A fixation in the oral stage can result in __________ (3 things)
gumchewing thumbsucking nailbiting
The Myers-Briggs test is an example of ____ theory.
type
If you are _____ on the T-F dichotomy you prefer to use logic and analysis when making decisions and you believe only equals should be treated equally.
thinking
The __________ dichotomy doesn't have to do with how social you are but rather under what social conditions you feel the most energized.
extroversion-introversion
_____ theory indicates that there is a continuum of traits you can be 60% extroverted and 40% introverted.
Trait
If you are ________ on the J-P dichotomy you are spontaneous and flexible you like surprises and you think of routines as limiting.
perceiving
The __________ dichotomy indicates where one's source of energy comes from.
extroversion-introversion
If you are ____ on the S-N dichotomy you like to use what you can observe and trust your own experience and the facts you've learned.
sensing
If you are ________ on the J-P dichotomy you like to have your day well scheduled ahead of time and you prefer routine.
judging
The _____ dichotomy indicates how you make decisions.
thinking-feeling
If you are ____ on the S-N dichotomy you like to follow hunches and you prefer theory to practice.
intuition
_____ theory indicates that there is no continuum of type you are either classified as one or another.
Type
The ________ dichotomy indicates how you absorb information by concrete facts or general concepts.
sensing-intuition
The _______ dichotomy indicates lifestyle.
judging-perceiving
If you are _____ on the T-F dichotomy you prefer to use your personal values to make decisions to think about individuals and your concept of fairness is that everyone should be treated individually.
feeling
An ________ test uses large-scale testing to determine what personality traits are indicated by differing answers to random questions.
empirically derived
In the _______ approach to trait theory arbitrary theories of personality are used to determine what traits exist.
theoretical
The _______ approach to trait theory uses an analysis of the words describing personality in natural language to reveal traits.
lexical
The __________ is an empirically derived personality test.
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
In the _______ approach to trait theory more common words describe more important traits.
lexical
_____ theory indicates that people are simply different organizations of similar characteristics.
Trait
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are naturally trusting and goodnatured or cynical and suspicious.
agreeableness
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you prefer to be alone or with others.
extroversion
In the ________ trait theory the individual is indicated to be positive or negative for a trait on a linear continuum.
Big Five
The Big Five uses a _________ approach to coming up with traits.
lexical
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are organized and persistent or aimless and careless.
conscientiousness
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you prefer to explore the unfamiliar or whether you are conventional and have narrow interests.
openness
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are extremely emotion and nervous or calm relaxed and self-satisfied.
neuroticism
__________ is when a zygote implants inside of the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
Ectopic pregnancy
The _______ is the gap between the uterus and the vagina.
cervix
_______ are substances that at certain times and in certain amounts harm the prenatal infant.
Teratogens
________ is the reflex where you internally close off your lungs when you're underwater.
Diving
________ is the reflex where you naturally make stroking motions if placed in water.
Swimming
________ is the reflex where you grasp your hands if your palm is touched.
Palmer grasp
________ is the reflex where you suck anything in or near your mouth.
Sucking
________ is the reflex where you reach your arms out and then back in if you're startled.
Moro
________ is the reflex where you turn your head if your cheek is touched.
Rooting
________ is the reflex where you toes flex out and then back in when the bottom of your foot is touched.
Babinski
________ is the reflex where you flex your toes if the bottom of your foot is touched.
Plantar grasp