An example of the _________ approach to trait theory is Jung's designation of introversion/extroversion traits.
"The ________ stage is when we only perceive and interpret the world with our senses no ""thinking"" is going on."
An example of this is when children think that you can see the TV as well as they can even though they're in front of it.
__________ is when children have no idea that others perceive different sensations than they do.
"_________ were originally applied because it was thought babies needed them to ""grow properly"""
___________ is when we try to fit new information into our previous concepts and find that we have to create a new category to fit it into.
________ is the concept that toddlers develop which allows them to understand that other people have minds just like their own.
Theory of mind
_________ is an adolescent's idea that there is always someone watching and judging their actions.
________ is an adolescent's idea that their own lives are vastly important and even mythic.
_______ is the individual's confrontation with new ideas and experiences which help the individual decide their identity.
__________ is the result of struggle without commitment (yet). This is the condition of most college students.
__________ is the result of commitment but no struggle for example when someone else decides your career.
___________ are the reproductive organs and external genitalia that mature during puberty.
Primary sex characteristics
_____________ are the nonreproductive traits (body hair deeper voice wider hips) that develop during puberty.
Secondary sex characteristics
_________ is period between the beginning of the start of sexual maturity to when we are considered adults by society.
____________ is when the conditioned response isn't evoked by a stimulus similar to the conditioned stimulus.
When a neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus the neutral stimulus becomes a ___________
An ________ is when you simply notice something without reacting to it in any other way.
___________ is when a stimulus similar but not the same as the conditioned stimulus still evokes the same conditioned response.
________ is when the conditioned response gradually declines because the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are no longer associated.
Once an unconditioned response is associated with a conditioned stimulus it becomes a ___________.
_________ is the initial learning of an association between the neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus.
Unconditioned responses are usually ___________ responses such as blinking or an increase in heart rate.
sympathetic nervous system
_______ are usually sympathetic nervous system responses such as blinking or an increase in heart rate.
A ________ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a fixed number of responses are produced.
________ is the reinforcement of behaviors gradually closer to but not yet the same as the desired behavior.
A _______ schedule is when a reinforcement is given only at certain equally spaced times for a response or responses.
A _______ schedule is when a reinforcement is given only at certain varying times for a response or responses.
A _________ is the time when there are no responses because reinforcement will not be offered again for a fixed amount of time.
A ________ schedule is when reinforcement is given after a random number of reponses are produced.
The ________ is how an individual believes their behavior and its results are determined whether by luck pluck or God.
locus of control
__________ is the idea that individuals determine their environment by their behavior but the environment also determines our behavior.
Freud's metaphor for his view of the mind was an iceberg with _______ above the surface and ________ and ________ below it.
conscious preconscious unconscious
_________ is a projective technique which measures intrapsychic conflict by timing the gap between a patient's hearing of a word and his saying of a random related word.
The ___________ is a projective test that uses a series of ambiguous pictures which the patient must describe in order to reveal the unconscious.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The ____ or _____ model treats human emotions as energies which can be transformed but never destroyed.
_______ is the idea that every action we make is the result of the workings of our mind. A cigar is never just a cigar.
The _________ is a projective test in which the subject reveals his unconscious desires by interpreting random shapes.
Rosrchach inkblot test
_________ arise from the fact that people control their basic instincts by pushing them below the conscious level.
The _____ includes everything not within our awareness and irretrievable through conventional methods.
Defense mechanism ex: getting into an argument with your wife because you had a bad day at work.
Defense mechanism ex: if you unconsciously love someone that you act like you hate.
"_______ is a defense mechanism in which one transfers an id impulse from one person to another. ""Taking it out"" on the wrong person."
_______ is a defense mechanism in which the ego finds a way to express an id instinct in a way that satisfies the superego.
_______ arises from the fact that opposite emotions are equally satisfying to the id.
Defense mechanism ex. You unconsciously want to steal something so you think your brother is a thief.
________ is a defense mechanisms in which we don't accept something that is obviously true usually about ourselves.
_______ is a defense mechanism in which the opposite emotion that is actually felt is expressed.
________ are periods of one's life in which the majority of tension reduction for the id is satified by particular erogenous zones of the body.
_______ occur when you receive too much or too little tension reduction during a particular psychosexual stage.
The _____ stage is when the mother is the main source of tension reduction and the father becomes a threat.
A fixation in the anal stage can lead to __________ or _________.
anal retentiveness (over cleanliness) anal expulsiveness (messiness)
If you are _____ on the T-F dichotomy you prefer to use logic and analysis when making decisions and you believe only equals should be treated equally.
The __________ dichotomy doesn't have to do with how social you are but rather under what social conditions you feel the most energized.
_____ theory indicates that there is a continuum of traits you can be 60% extroverted and 40% introverted.
If you are ________ on the J-P dichotomy you are spontaneous and flexible you like surprises and you think of routines as limiting.
The __________ dichotomy indicates where one's source of energy comes from.
If you are ____ on the S-N dichotomy you like to use what you can observe and trust your own experience and the facts you've learned.
If you are ________ on the J-P dichotomy you like to have your day well scheduled ahead of time and you prefer routine.
If you are ____ on the S-N dichotomy you like to follow hunches and you prefer theory to practice.
_____ theory indicates that there is no continuum of type you are either classified as one or another.
The ________ dichotomy indicates how you absorb information by concrete facts or general concepts.
If you are _____ on the T-F dichotomy you prefer to use your personal values to make decisions to think about individuals and your concept of fairness is that everyone should be treated individually.
An ________ test uses large-scale testing to determine what personality traits are indicated by differing answers to random questions.
In the _______ approach to trait theory arbitrary theories of personality are used to determine what traits exist.
The _______ approach to trait theory uses an analysis of the words describing personality in natural language to reveal traits.
The __________ is an empirically derived personality test.
Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
_____ theory indicates that people are simply different organizations of similar characteristics.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are naturally trusting and goodnatured or cynical and suspicious.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you prefer to be alone or with others.
In the ________ trait theory the individual is indicated to be positive or negative for a trait on a linear continuum.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are organized and persistent or aimless and careless.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you prefer to explore the unfamiliar or whether you are conventional and have narrow interests.
The _________ trait on the Big Five indicates whether you are extremely emotion and nervous or calm relaxed and self-satisfied.
__________ is when a zygote implants inside of the fallopian tube instead of the uterus.
_______ are substances that at certain times and in certain amounts harm the prenatal infant.