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156 terms

Laboratory Terminology

Flash Cards for Medical Laboratory Prodedures and Terminology.
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Agglutination
a clumping of bacteria or red cells when held together by antibodies (agglutinins)
Isotonic
(used of solutions) having the same or equal osmotic pressure
Leukocytosis
an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
Leukopenia
abnormally low WBC count. Usually below 4500mm3
Polycythemia
an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow
Reticulocyte
An immature red blood cell which retains traces of endoplasmic reticula
Erythrocytosis
increase in the number of red blood cells, aka polycycythemia (pathologic)
Pseudoagglutination
the clumping together of red blood cells as in the formation of rouleaux but differing from true agglutination in that the clumped cells can be dispersed by shaking
Nucleated Red Blood Cell
a red blood cell that contains a nucleus. It resembles a white blood cell under low-power magnification and may inflate the white blood cell count
Rouleaux
a clump of red blood cells that appear to be stacked like a roll of coins
Anoxia
lack of oxygen
Aplastic Anemia
deficient RBC development due to bonemarrow disorder.
Diurnal
daily variation
Epinephrine
adrenaline
Erythemia
polycythemia vera; a chronic usually fatal disease of the bone marrow that results in greatly elevated red blood cell counts
Neoplasm
tumor
Pernicious Anemia
progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
Relative Polycythemia
increase in RBC with decrease in volume of plasma. Dehydration, fever/shock/diarrhea.
Hemoglobin Test
A blood test measured in g/dL. Hgb test
Drabkin's reagent
Converts hemoglobin into cyanmethemoglobin
Erythropoiesis
Red blood cell formation
Hematocrit
the ratio of the volume occupied by packed red blood cells
Hemoglobin
an oxygen-carrying molecule
Hemoglobinopathy
a disease caused by abnormal hemoglobin
Homozygous
having two copies of the same gene
Sahli pipette
measures blood for a hemoglobin test
Buffy Coat
a thin whitish-tan colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells
Stromatolytic agent
a compound that helps break down the spongy protoplasmic framework of cells such as RBC
Microhematocrit
a method of determining the hematocrit. It uses just two or three drops of blood collected in a capillary tube
Hemoglobin C
an abnormal hemoglobin that is relatively common in African Americans. It causes chronic hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, arthralgia, and abdominal pain
Hemoglobin S
sickle cell hemoglobin
Hemolytic anemia
The anemia that is due to the breakdown of Red Blood Cells
Hemoglobin E
an abnormal hemoglobin that is prevelant in India, Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asian refugees in the US. It causes a mild form of hemolytic anemia
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
A battery of hematological tests often requisitioned in POL's
Erythropoietin
hormone released by the kidneys and is involved in production of red blood cells
Normal Hemoglobin concentration value for an Adult Male
Between 14-17 g/dL
Normal Hematocrit value for an Adult Male
Between 42-52%
Normal Hemoglobin concentration for an Adult Female
Beween 12.5 - 15 g/dL
Normal Hematocrit value for an Adult Female
Between 36 - 46%
Normal Hemoglobin concentration value for a newborn
Between 17- 23 g/dL
Normal Hematocrit value for a newborn
Between 50 - 62%
How to calculate a patient's Hemoglobin concentration using values for a known standard
Concentration of hemoglobin standard (Cs). Au is the absorbance of the patients sample and As is the absorbance of the standard. Both read from the spectrophotometer.
Structure of hemoglobin molecule
Consists of 4 polypeptide chains called globins, each with an iron containing heme group attached
At what age would a person have a normal hematocrit reading of 60%
Newborn
At what age would a person have a normal hematocrit of 50%
Adult Male
How is a hematocrit expressed
As a percentage of the total volume of whole blood in the sample
What disease causes a low hemoglobin concentration and a normal hematocrit?
Iron-deficiency anemia because iron is needed of hemoglobin formation
What is the function of hemoglobin?
To transport oxygen to the tissues from the lungs
What tests are usually included in a CBC?
Hgb concentration, hematocrit, WBC count, differential WBC count, RBC count, and sometimes erythrocyte indices
How is a specific-gravity test for hemoglobin performed?
By adding a drop of blood to a copper sulfate solution of known density and determining if the blood is more or less dense than the solution and observing movement
How do sickle-cell hemoglobin homozygous individuals differ from heterozygous individuals?
Heterozygous individuals have normal hemoglobin in addition to sickle-cell hemoglobin and normally don't show signs of anemia. Sickle-cell hemoglobin gene only produce sickle-cell hemoglobin.
What is the age of a patient who has a normal hemoglobin concentration of 20 g/dL?
Newborn
Anticoagulant
EDTA, a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
EDTA
ethyenediamnetetraacetic acid
Hemolysis
breakdown of the red blood cells
Icteric
jaundiced
Lipemic
having a high fat level
Platelet
involved in clotting
Serum
the liquid part of clotted blood
microtainer
capillary blood collector
vacutainer
used for venipuncture
What are capillaries?
Small blood vessels throughout the body that connect the smaller arteries to the smaller veins
Order of draw
1 yellow, 2 light blue, 3 red, 4 red/gray: SST: tiger striped, 5 light green, 6 lavender, 7 pale yellow, 8 light gray
Antecubital
Area in front of the elbow
Capillary
smallest blood vessel; connects arteries and veins
Hematology
the study of blood and blood-forming tissues, and coagulation factors, and the disorders associated with them
Hematoma
a subcutaneeus mass of blood at a venipuncture site
Autolet
a semiautomatic device with a disposable lancet for capillary puncture
Blood chemistry
the quantitative analysis of the chemical composition of blood
Plasma
the liquid part of blood
Hemoconcentration
increased concentration of blood cells due to a decrease in plasma volume - tourniquet too tight
Venipuncture
puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion
Fibrinogen
Plasma protein that is converted to fibrin in the clotting process
Heparin
prevents blood clotting
Universal Precautions
steps taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all human blood and certain body fluids as if they contained HIV, HBV, and other pathogens
Anisocytosis
the excessive variation in size of cells, especially RBC's
Eosin
Orange/red acidic dye used to stain blood smears for microscopic examinations.
Hypersegmented
Having a nucleus with more than 5 segments, or lobes; used to describe certain neutrophils
Infectious mononucleosis
an acute infectious disease in which lymphocytes are both more numerous and larger than normal and often contain vacuoles, causing them to resembe monocytes- hence the name of the disease.
Megakaryocyte
large bone marrow cell with large or multiple nuclei. Gives rise to platelets
methylene blue
a blue alkaline dye used to stain blood smears for microscopic examination
Neutropenia
decrease below normal in the number of neutrophils in the blood, due to certain drugs, some acute infections, radiation, or certain diseases of the spleen or bone marrow.
Poikilocytosis
A condition in which many red blood cells have abnormal or multiple types of shapes
Polychromatic stain
a stain containing dyes of two or more colors, such as Wright's stain, which contains methylene blue and eosin
polymorphonuclear
having a multi-lobed nucleus; used to describe cells such as granulocytes
Quick-stain method
a method of staining blood smears in which the smear is dipped sequentially in fixative, acidic stain, and alkaline stain; also known as the 3 step method.
Wright's stain
a polychromatic stain for fixing and staining blood smears. It contains eosin and methylene blue dyes in a methyl alcohol solution
Monocytic Leukemia
a form of acute leukemia in which abnormal monocytes proliferate and invade the blood, bone marrow, and other tissues
Lymphocytic Leukemia
leukemia characterized by enlargement of lymphoid tissues and lymphocytic cells in the circulating blood
Endocarditis
the inflammation of the lining of the heart. My be associated with an increase in number of monocytes.
Granulocyte
a polymorphonuclear white blood cell that contains granules in its cytoplasm. This class includes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
basophils
a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses. Granulocyte
neutrophils
WBCs that fight against invading agents or injury. Granulocyte
eosinophils
White blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. Granulocyte
Agranulocyte
type of wbc, shows no granules, will not stain any color, 2 types monocyte, lymphocyte
monocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte that performs phagocytosis to fight infection
lymphocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection
Normochromic
pertaining to normal concentration of hemoglobin (colour)
Hyperchromic
excessive pigmentation
Hypochromic
Pertaining to deficiency in color; decrease in hemoglobin in red blood cells.
Macrocyte
an abnormally large erythrocyte
microcyte
an abnormally small red blood cell (less than 5 microns in diameter)
Coagulation
The process of blood clotting
Prothrombin
a protein in blood plasma that is the inactive precursor of thrombin
Thrombin
Enzyme that converts fibrinogen to fibrin during coagulation
Thromboplastin
an enzyme liberated from blood platelets that converts prothrombin into thrombin as blood starts to clot
Fibrinogen
A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.
Calcium
Ca
Bleeding Time
Time it takes for a small puncture wound to stop bleeding. BT
Cerebrovascular accident
damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke
Clotting disorder
a coagulation desease in which clots form in the blood spontaneously
Coagulation factor
factor essential to normal blood clotting contained within the blood plasma; their absence diminution or excess may lead to abnormality of clotting
Coumarin
medication taken to prevent blood clotting, called blood thinners
Embolism
a sudden obstruction or plugging up of an artery or other blood-vessel by an embolus
Hemophilia
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
Hemorrhagic desease
any of several diseases which excessive bleeding occurs because blood fails to clot.
Hemostasis
stoppage of bleeding
Platelet plug
an accumulation of platelets that can seal up small breaks in blood vessels; maintains the integrity of the circulatory system
Serotonin
a potent vasoconstrictor that is released by platelets adhering to a wounded blood vessel
Template method
(Ivy bleeding time) a method of testing bleeding time. Standardizes the size and depth of the incision
Thromboplastin
coagulation factor III; the immediate initiator of the blood-clotting mechanism.
Thrombus
a blood clot within the vascular system
Vasoconstriction
rapid constriction of the blood vessels to decrease blood flow to the area
Warfarin
an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus. Also a rodent poison.
Factor VIII
Antihemophilic factor (AHF)
Factor I
Fibrinogen
Factor II
Prothrombin
Factor III
Thromboplastin
Factor IV
Calcium
Factor V
Labile factor (proaccelerin)
Factor VII
Serum prothrombin conversion accelerator (SPCA)
Factor IX
Plasma thromboplastin component (PTC)
Factor X
Stuart-Prower factor
Factor XI
Plasma thromboplastin antecedent (PTA)
Factor XII
Hageman factor (contract factor)
Factor XIII
Fibrin stabilizing factor
Platelet factor
Cephalin
Extrinsic Factor Pathway
vitamin b12. Blood comes into contact with traumatized tissues
Intrinsic Factor Pathway
substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorption of vitamin B12. pathway that is followed when there is damage to the blood itself
Vitamin K
helps with blood clotting and bone growth
Normal values of prothrombin time (PT)
11-13 seconds
The Ivy bleeding time (template method) uses a standardized incision made on the forearm and a blood pressure cuff inflated to?
Inflated to 40mm
What color of tube contains EDTA?
lavender top
Which color of tube does not use any additives?
Red color top
Which vein is most commonly used for venipuncture?
Median cephalic vein
Antigen
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies
Adams suction apparatus
a device for suctioning fluids into a pipette to prevent accidental ingestion of the fluids. It has an airtight rubber gasket and a stainless steel barrel with a thumbscrew at the end to control the suction
Balanced Leukocytosis
an elevation in all types of white blood cells, usually due to hemoconcentration
Hemacytometer
instrument used for red blood cell count
Agranulocyte
type of wbc, shows no granules, will not stain any color, 2 types monocyte, lymphocyte
Agranulocytosis
Extremely low levels of white blood cells. Symptoms include sore throat, fever, and malaise. This may be a side effect of long-term therapy with some antipsychotic medications.
Brucellosis
a contagious disease that affects cattle, caused by the bacteria brucella abortus
Endocarditis
inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
Mononuclear
Pertaining to a white blood cell with a single, round nucleus; monocyte or lymphocyte.
Activated partial thromboplastin time
blood test used to determin how long it takes clots to form to regulate heparin dosage. APTT
Heparin Sodium
a widely used anitcoagulant drug