an abnormal increase in the number of white blood cells in the blood as a result of infection (as in leukemia)
an abnormal increase in the number of red cells in the blood due to excess production of these cells by the bone marrow
the clumping together of red blood cells as in the formation of rouleaux but differing from true agglutination in that the clumped cells can be dispersed by shaking
Nucleated Red Blood Cell
a red blood cell that contains a nucleus. It resembles a white blood cell under low-power magnification and may inflate the white blood cell count
polycythemia vera; a chronic usually fatal disease of the bone marrow that results in greatly elevated red blood cell counts
progressive anemia that results from a lack of intrinsic factor essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
increase in RBC with decrease in volume of plasma. Dehydration, fever/shock/diarrhea.
a thin whitish-tan colored layer of white blood cells and platelets than lie between a top layer of plasma and red blood cells
a compound that helps break down the spongy protoplasmic framework of cells such as RBC
a method of determining the hematocrit. It uses just two or three drops of blood collected in a capillary tube
an abnormal hemoglobin that is relatively common in African Americans. It causes chronic hemolytic anemia, splenomegaly, arthralgia, and abdominal pain
an abnormal hemoglobin that is prevelant in India, Southeast Asia, and Southeast Asian refugees in the US. It causes a mild form of hemolytic anemia
How to calculate a patient's Hemoglobin concentration using values for a known standard
Concentration of hemoglobin standard (Cs). Au is the absorbance of the patients sample and As is the absorbance of the standard. Both read from the spectrophotometer.
Structure of hemoglobin molecule
Consists of 4 polypeptide chains called globins, each with an iron containing heme group attached
What disease causes a low hemoglobin concentration and a normal hematocrit?
Iron-deficiency anemia because iron is needed of hemoglobin formation
What tests are usually included in a CBC?
Hgb concentration, hematocrit, WBC count, differential WBC count, RBC count, and sometimes erythrocyte indices
How is a specific-gravity test for hemoglobin performed?
By adding a drop of blood to a copper sulfate solution of known density and determining if the blood is more or less dense than the solution and observing movement
How do sickle-cell hemoglobin homozygous individuals differ from heterozygous individuals?
Heterozygous individuals have normal hemoglobin in addition to sickle-cell hemoglobin and normally don't show signs of anemia. Sickle-cell hemoglobin gene only produce sickle-cell hemoglobin.
What are capillaries?
Small blood vessels throughout the body that connect the smaller arteries to the smaller veins
Order of draw
1 yellow, 2 light blue, 3 red, 4 red/gray: SST: tiger striped, 5 light green, 6 lavender, 7 pale yellow, 8 light gray
the study of blood and blood-forming tissues, and coagulation factors, and the disorders associated with them
increased concentration of blood cells due to a decrease in plasma volume - tourniquet too tight
puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion
steps taken to prevent the spread of disease by treating all human blood and certain body fluids as if they contained HIV, HBV, and other pathogens
Having a nucleus with more than 5 segments, or lobes; used to describe certain neutrophils
an acute infectious disease in which lymphocytes are both more numerous and larger than normal and often contain vacuoles, causing them to resembe monocytes- hence the name of the disease.
decrease below normal in the number of neutrophils in the blood, due to certain drugs, some acute infections, radiation, or certain diseases of the spleen or bone marrow.
a stain containing dyes of two or more colors, such as Wright's stain, which contains methylene blue and eosin
a method of staining blood smears in which the smear is dipped sequentially in fixative, acidic stain, and alkaline stain; also known as the 3 step method.
a polychromatic stain for fixing and staining blood smears. It contains eosin and methylene blue dyes in a methyl alcohol solution
a form of acute leukemia in which abnormal monocytes proliferate and invade the blood, bone marrow, and other tissues
leukemia characterized by enlargement of lymphoid tissues and lymphocytic cells in the circulating blood
the inflammation of the lining of the heart. My be associated with an increase in number of monocytes.
a polymorphonuclear white blood cell that contains granules in its cytoplasm. This class includes: neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils.
a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses. Granulocyte
White blood cells that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in the body. Granulocyte
an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection
an enzyme liberated from blood platelets that converts prothrombin into thrombin as blood starts to clot
A blood protein essential to blood clotting. The conversion of fibrinogen to its active form (fibrin) is among the final steps in clot formation, and is triggered by thrombin.
damage to the brain that occurs when the blood flow to the brain is disrupted; also known as a stroke
factor essential to normal blood clotting contained within the blood plasma; their absence diminution or excess may lead to abnormality of clotting
a group of hereditary bleeding disorders in which there is a defect in clotting factors necessary for the coagulation of blood
any of several diseases which excessive bleeding occurs because blood fails to clot.
an accumulation of platelets that can seal up small breaks in blood vessels; maintains the integrity of the circulatory system
(Ivy bleeding time) a method of testing bleeding time. Standardizes the size and depth of the incision
an anticoagulant (trade name Coumadin) use to prevent and treat a thrombus or embolus. Also a rodent poison.
Intrinsic Factor Pathway
substance that gastric glands produce to promote absorption of vitamin B12. pathway that is followed when there is damage to the blood itself
The Ivy bleeding time (template method) uses a standardized incision made on the forearm and a blood pressure cuff inflated to?
Inflated to 40mm
Adams suction apparatus
a device for suctioning fluids into a pipette to prevent accidental ingestion of the fluids. It has an airtight rubber gasket and a stainless steel barrel with a thumbscrew at the end to control the suction
an elevation in all types of white blood cells, usually due to hemoconcentration
Extremely low levels of white blood cells. Symptoms include sore throat, fever, and malaise. This may be a side effect of long-term therapy with some antipsychotic medications.
Activated partial thromboplastin time
blood test used to determin how long it takes clots to form to regulate heparin dosage. APTT