In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's idea.
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another.
A reference to a well-known person, place, or thing from literature, history, etc.
Comparison of two similar but different things, usually to clarify an action or a relationship.
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent.
A short, simple narrative of an incident, often used for humorous effect or to make a point.
The presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraph.
A short, often witty statement of principle or a truth about life.
Usually in poetry by sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction.
Appeals Pathos (Emotional appeal)
The aspect of a literary work that elicit sorrow or pity from the audience. An appeal to emotion that can be used as a means to persuade. Over-emotional can be the result of an excess of pathos.
Appeals Ethos (Ethical appeal)
When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text. Reputation is sometime a factor in ethical appeal, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience's confidence.
Appeals Logos (Logical appeal)
Appealing to the audience through use of proper reasoning and factual information.
"He gushed about the city, as if he found Eldorado."
"Her mouth was a megaphone projecting her thoughts, loudly."
"She was young. She was smart. She was beautiful."
"Her mind was ugly, but her face was beautiful."
"People in hell want ice water," said my Mom when I said I wanted new clothes.
In Romeo and Juliet, Romeo calls out "Juliet" over her dead body
Logos (Logical Appeal)
"Seven out of every ten women will be in an abusive relationship before they're thirty."
Ethos (Ethical Appeal)
"Trust me, I'm a doctor."
Pathos (Emotional Appeal)
"Without your donation, this puppy will die."
"Alysa wouldn't understand, because she's a Catholic."
Writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words
Descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates or distorts, for comic effect, a person's physical features or other characteristics.
A word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing
Word choice, an element of style
Writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach
The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme
The repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
A more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable
The art of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text
The immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot
Language that contains figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, in order to create associations that are imaginative rather than literal
Sentence consisting of three or more very short independent clauses joined by conjunctions
When a writer bases a claim upon an isolated example or asserts that a claim is certain rather than probable
Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis
Words or phrases that use a collection of images to appeal to one or more of the five senses in order to create a mental picture
An emotionally charged, verbally abusive attack
Reversing the customary (subject first, then verb, then complement) order of elements in a sentence or phrase
A situation or statement in which the actual outcome or meaning is opposite to what was expected
The special language of a profession or group
"They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding."
"Y'all ain't scared of anything."
"You are a lost generation." by Gertrude Stein
"And that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth."
"I'm sure your dog is in a better place."
"The storm was approaching; the storm of doom and destruction that had leveled whole communities in the past, that had howled and blown and ripped families and homes from the very roots of their foundations, and that had taken her idyllic idea of a peaceful Mother Nature and thrown it into her subconscious abattoir where all nonsense and idiocy was sentenced to death."
"Rich people are greedy."
"There are more reasons for NASA to fund a trip to Jupiter than there are miles in the journey."
"He fumed and charged like an angry bull."
"You dirt-eating piece of slime, you scum-sucking pig, you son of a motherless goat!"—Three Amigos
"Half an hour later came another inquiry as to tugs. Later came a message from the Irene, telling of the lifting of the fog."
"I posted a video on YouTube about how boring and useless YouTube is."
"Can you grab my script from the doctors office?"
A type of understatement in which and idea is expressed by negating its opposite.
A figure of speech in which one thing is referred to as another.
A figure of speech that uses the name of an object, person, or idea to represent something with which it is associated.
A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent a whole.
The primary emotional attitude of a work.
"He is not a handsome man."
"My heart is a fragile flower."
"The pen is mightier than the sword."
"All hands on deck."
Similar to tone, it is the primary emotional attitude of a work
Main theme or subject of a work that is elaborated on in the development of the piece; a repeated pattern or idea
Sentence that begins by stating what is NOT true, then ending by stating what is true
an impersonal presentation of events and characters. A writers attempt to remove himself or herself from any personal involvement in a story.
the use of words that sound like what they mean, such as "hiss," "buzz," "slam," and "boom"
when a writer obscures or denies the complexity of the issues in an argument
"Freedom is not given, it is won."
"The bridge collapsed creating a tremendous boom."
"Celebrities are all very important people."
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AP English Language and Composition Rhetorical Strategies List