73 terms

AP Language & Composition 2017-18

STUDY
PLAY
Ad Hominem
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's idea.
Alliteration
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words that are close to one another.
Allusion
A reference to a well-known person, place, or thing from literature, history, etc.
Analogy
Comparison of two similar but different things, usually to clarify an action or a relationship.
Anaphora
Repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent.
Anecdote
A short, simple narrative of an incident, often used for humorous effect or to make a point.
Antithesis
The presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by word, phrase, clause, or paragraph.
Aphorism
A short, often witty statement of principle or a truth about life.
Apostrophe
Usually in poetry by sometimes in prose; the device of calling out to an imaginary, dead, or absent person or to a place, thing, or personified abstraction.
Appeals
Pathos (Emotional appeal)
The aspect of a literary work that elicit sorrow or pity from the audience. An appeal to emotion that can be used as a means to persuade. Over-emotional can be the result of an excess of pathos.
Appeals
Ethos (Ethical appeal)
When a writer tries to persuade the audience to respect and believe him or her based on a presentation of image of self through the text. Reputation is sometime a factor in ethical appeal, but in all cases the aim is to gain the audience's confidence.
Appeals
Logos (Logical appeal)
Appealing to the audience through use of proper reasoning and factual information.
Allusion
"He gushed about the city, as if he found Eldorado."
Analogy
"Her mouth was a megaphone projecting her thoughts, loudly."
Anaphora
"She was young. She was smart. She was beautiful."
Antithesis
"Her mind was ugly, but her face was beautiful."
Aphorism
"People in hell want ice water," said my Mom when I said I wanted new clothes.
Apostrophe
In Romeo and Juliet, Romeo calls out "Juliet" over her dead body
Logos (Logical Appeal)
"Seven out of every ten women will be in an abusive relationship before they're thirty."
Ethos (Ethical Appeal)
"Trust me, I'm a doctor."
Pathos (Emotional Appeal)
"Without your donation, this puppy will die."
Ad Hominem
"Alysa wouldn't understand, because she's a Catholic."
Argumentation
Writing that attempts to prove the validity of a point of view or an idea by presenting reasoned arguments
Asyndeton
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words
Caricature
Descriptive writing that greatly exaggerates or distorts, for comic effect, a person's physical features or other characteristics.
Colloquialism
A word or phrase (including slang) used in everyday conversation and informal writing
Diction
Word choice, an element of style
Didactic
Writing whose purpose is to instruct or to teach
Epigraph
The use of a quotation at the beginning of a work that hints at its theme
Epistrophe
The repetition of the same word or words comes at the end of successive phrases, clauses, or sentences
Euphemism
A more acceptable and usually more pleasant way of saying something that might be inappropriate or uncomfortable
Explication
The art of interpreting or discovering the meaning of a text
Exposition
The immediate revelation to the audience of the setting and other background information necessary for understanding the plot
Figurative Language
Language that contains figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, in order to create associations that are imaginative rather than literal
Freight-Train
Sentence consisting of three or more very short independent clauses joined by conjunctions
Generalization
When a writer bases a claim upon an isolated example or asserts that a claim is certain rather than probable
Hyperbole
Deliberate exaggeration in order to create humor or emphasis
Imagery
Words or phrases that use a collection of images to appeal to one or more of the five senses in order to create a mental picture
Invective
An emotionally charged, verbally abusive attack
Inversion
Reversing the customary (subject first, then verb, then complement) order of elements in a sentence or phrase
Irony
A situation or statement in which the actual outcome or meaning is opposite to what was expected
Jargon
The special language of a profession or group
Asyndeton
"They spent the day wondering, searching, thinking, understanding."
Colloquialism
"Y'all ain't scared of anything."
Epigraph
"You are a lost generation." by Gertrude Stein
Epistrophe
"And that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the Earth."
Euphemism
"I'm sure your dog is in a better place."
Freight-Train
"The storm was approaching; the storm of doom and destruction that had leveled whole communities in the past, that had howled and blown and ripped families and homes from the very roots of their foundations, and that had taken her idyllic idea of a peaceful Mother Nature and thrown it into her subconscious abattoir where all nonsense and idiocy was sentenced to death."
Generalization
"Rich people are greedy."
Hyperbole
"There are more reasons for NASA to fund a trip to Jupiter than there are miles in the journey."
Imagery
"He fumed and charged like an angry bull."
Invective
"You dirt-eating piece of slime, you scum-sucking pig, you son of a motherless goat!"—Three Amigos
Inversion
"Half an hour later came another inquiry as to tugs. Later came a message from the Irene, telling of the lifting of the fog."
Irony
"I posted a video on YouTube about how boring and useless YouTube is."
Jargon
"Can you grab my script from the doctors office?"
Litotes
A type of understatement in which and idea is expressed by negating its opposite.
Metaphor
A figure of speech in which one thing is referred to as another.
Metonymy
A figure of speech that uses the name of an object, person, or idea to represent something with which it is associated.
Synecdoche
A figure of speech in which a part of something is used to represent a whole.
Mood
The primary emotional attitude of a work.
Litotes
"He is not a handsome man."
Metaphor
"My heart is a fragile flower."
Metonymy
"The pen is mightier than the sword."
Synecdoche
"All hands on deck."
Mood
Similar to tone, it is the primary emotional attitude of a work
Motif/Theme
Main theme or subject of a work that is elaborated on in the development of the piece; a repeated pattern or idea
Negative-Positive
Sentence that begins by stating what is NOT true, then ending by stating what is true
Objectivity
an impersonal presentation of events and characters. A writers attempt to remove himself or herself from any personal involvement in a story.
Onomatopoeia
the use of words that sound like what they mean, such as "hiss," "buzz," "slam," and "boom"
Oversimplification
when a writer obscures or denies the complexity of the issues in an argument
Negative-Positive
"Freedom is not given, it is won."
Onomatopoeia
"The bridge collapsed creating a tremendous boom."
Oversimplification
"Celebrities are all very important people."