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Gravity
Key Concepts:
Terms in this set (92)
integer
the natural numbers, their opposites, and zero
sum
add
product
multiply
difference
subtraction
quotient
division
remainder
Amount left over after dividing a number
divisor
A number by which another number is divided.
factor
a number or expression that is multiplied by another number or expression to get a product
prime number
A whole number that has exactly two factors, 1 and itself.
multiple of an integer
the product of that integer and another integer
even number
A whole number divisible by 2
odd number
Odd numbers can NOT be divided evenly into groups of two
exponent
A mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.
laws of exponents
Rules that describe relationships between exponents for certain operations.
negative exponent
an exponent less than zero which causes the base and its exponent to move positions in a fraction
fractional exponent
The numerator is the power of the base, the denominator is the type of root
properties of square roots
multiplication of the roots
if the product of two or more numbers is 0, what do you know about the numbers?
one of the numbers is 0
distributive property
a property indicating a special way in which multiplication is applied to addition of two or more numbers in which each term inside a set of parentheses can be multiplied by a factor outside the parentheses, such as a(b + c) = ab + ac
properties of 0
integer, not negative, not positive, even number
properties of 1
Multiplying a number by 1 gives it that number
percent
A ratio that compares a number to 100
how do you find a percent of a number?
convert percent to a decimal and then multiply times the value
ratio
A comparison of two quantities by division (X/Y or X:Y-- numerator associate with word "to" and denominator "of"
proportion
A statement of equality of two or more ratios.
directly proportional
if y is directly proportional to x, then y = kx
inversely proportional
if y is indirectly proportional to x, then y = k/x
average
the total sum of numbers ÷ the amount of numbers
weight averaged
total weight ÷ amount of people weighed
median
Middle Number
mode
Most frequently occurring number
straight angle
An angle that is 180 degrees
parallel lines
lines in the same plane that never intersect
alternate interior angles
Angles that lie within a pair of lines and on opposite side of a transversal.
alternate exterior angles
Angles that lay outside the parallel lines and are on opposite sides of the transversal; They are congruent.
corresponding angles
Angles formed by a transversal cutting through 2 or more lines that are in the same relative position.
same side interior angles
two interior angles on the same side of the transversal
measures of the 3 angles in a triangle
should add up to 180
measures of the 2 acute angles in a right triangle
should add up to 90
how do you solve distance problems
D= √(x₁-x₂)²+(y₁+y₂)²
how do you find the distance between 2 points?
c² = a² + b²
counting principal
uses multiplication to find the number of possible ways two of more events can occur
exterior angle of a triangle
An angle that forms a linear pair with an angle of the triangle
Pythagorean theorem
a²+b²=c²
properties of a 45-45-90 triangle
properties of a 30-60-90 triangle
triangle inequality theorem
The sum of the lengths of any two sides of a triangle is greater than the length of the third side.
formula for the area of a CIRCLE
A=πr²
special formula for the area of a triangle
a= 1/2 bh
similar triangles (and their properties)
Similar triangles have the same shape: corresponding angles are equal and corresponding sides are proportional
what is true about the areas of similar triangles?
A correlation coefficient shows the relationship between two sets of numbers.
exterior angle of a polygon
an angle formed by a side and an extension of an adjacent side
properties of a parallelogram
opposite angles are congruent
properties of a rectangle
all properties of a parallelogram, all angles are right, diagonals are congruent
properties of a square
The measure of each angle is 90
formulas for the area of a parallelogram, rectangle, and a square
length x width
what is pi?
3.14
formula for the circumference of a circle
C = 2πr
how do you find the length of an arc of a circle?
how do you find the area of a sector of a circle
what is the relationship between a radius of a circle and a line that is tangent to the circle?
A tangent line is always perpendicular to the radius
formula for the volume of a rectangular solid and a cube
Cube: V=side³ Rectangular solid: l
w
*h
the formula for the surface area of a rectangular solid and a cube
2(area of base) + (base perimeter)(height of prism)
formula for the volume of a PYRAMID or CONE
V=1/3BH
how do you find the x-intercepts and the y-intercepts of a graph?
Substitute them for zero
midpoint formula
(X1 + X2)/2 and (Y1 + Y2)/2
distance formula
d = √[( x₂ - x₁)² + (y₂ - y₁)²]
slope of a line
y=mx+b
what is true about the slopes of parallel lines?
They are equal
what is true about the slopes of perpendicular lines?
They are opposite reciprocals (product of negative 1).
equation of a line
y=mx+b
how do you find the probability that an event will occur?
Number of favorable outcomes/total number of possible outcomes
what is the probability of an event that cannot occur?
0
venn diagram
A diagram that uses circles to display elements of different sets. Overlapping circles show common elements.
function
a rule relating an input value to an output value. Each input value can only be paired with one output value.
if you are given the graph y=f(x), what does f(a) represent
that represents the y value when x is equal to a
what are the relationships between the graphs of y=f(x) and the graphs of y=f(x)+a, y=f(x)-a, y=f(x+a), y=f(x-a)
it moves the graph up and down and left and right
what proportion do you use to solve percent problems?
x/100
order of operations
PEMDAS
greatest common factor
The largest factor that two or more numbers have in common.
least common multiple
the smallest number that two or more numbers will divide into evenly.
arithmetic sequence
a sequence in which each term is found by adding the same number to the previous term
geometric sequence
a sequence in which each term is found by multiplying the previous term by the same number
range
Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
mean
Average
vertical angles
A pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines
equation of a circle
(x-h)²+(y-k)²=r²
sine of an angle
The ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the hypotenuse.
cosine of an angle
Adjacent/Hypotenuse
tangent of an angle
The ratio of the length of the side opposite the angle to the length of the side adjacent to the angle.
system of equations
A set of equations with the same variables.
slope formula
(y₂- y₁) / (x₂- x₁)
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