Human Body Systems and Health

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Describe how tissues, organs, and organ systems are related
A group of cells that work together is a tissue. Tissues form organs. Organs that work together form organ systems.
Identify how organ systems work together to maintain homeostasis.
A group of cells that work together is a tissue. Tissues form organs. Organs that work together form organ systems.
Identify the major organs of the skeletal system.
*blood vessels
*marrow
*compact bone
*spongy bone
Describe four functions of bones.
Bones protect the body, store minerals, allow movement, and make blood cells.
What are joints
Joints are places where two or more bones meet.
List three injuries and two diseases that affect bones and joints.
injuries: fractures, dislocations, and sprains. Diseases: osteoporosis and arthritis.
List three kinds of muscle tissue
smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and skeletal muscle.
Describe how skeletal muscles move bones.
Skeletal muscles work in pairs. Skeletal muscles contract to move bones.
List four functions of skin.
Skin keeps water in the body, keeps foreign particles out of the body, lets people feel things around them, regulates temperature, and removes wastes.
two layers of skin.
epidermis and the dermis
Describe hair and nails.
Hair grows from hair follicles. Nails grow from nail roots.
List main parts of the cardiovascular system
made up of the heart, three types of blood vessels, and blood.
Describe the two types of circulation of blood in the body.
Oxygen-poor blood flows from the heart through the lungs, where it picks up oxygen.
Oxygen-rich blood flows from the heart to the rest of the body.
List four cardiovascular problems.
atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart attacks, and strokes.
Identify the four main components of blood.
plasma, red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells.
Describe three functions of blood.
Blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells, helps protect against disease, and helps regulate body temperature.
Describe the relationship between the lymphatic system and the cardiovascular system.
The lymphatic system collects fluid from between the cells and returns it to the blood.
Describe the parts of the respiratory system and their functions.
Air travels to the lungs through the nose or mouth, pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchi.
Discuss the relationship between the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system.
Oxygen enters the blood through the alveoli in the lungs. Carbon dioxide leaves the blood and is exhaled.
Compare mechanical digestion with chemical digestion.
The breaking and mashing of food is called mechanical digestion. Chemical digestion is the process that breaks large food molecules into simpler molecules.
Describe the parts and functions of the digestive system.
The stomach mixes food with acid and enzymes that break down nutrients. The mixture is called chyme.

In the small intestine, pancreatic fluid and bile are mixed with chyme.

From the small intestine, nutrients enter the bloodstream and are circulated to the body's cells.

The liver makes bile, stores nutrients, and breaks down toxins.

The large intestine absorbs water, changing liquid waste into semisolid stool, or feces.
Describe the parts and functions of the urinary system.
The urinary system removes liquid waste as urine. The filtering structures in the kidney are called nephrons.
Describe the relationship between the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and the spinal cord.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is all the parts of the nervous system except the brain and spinal cord.
List four sensations that are detected by receptors in the skin
Touch allows you to respond to temperature, pressure, pain, and vibration on the skin.
Describe how the senses of hearing, taste, and smell work.
Hearing: sound waves, Taste: chemical detection, Smell: olfactory cells
why is the endocrine system is important to the body.
It balances things out
Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction.
In asexual reproduction, a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.

In sexual reproduction, an egg from one parent combines with a sperm from the other parent.
Female vs Male reproduction
The male reproductive system produces sperm and delivers it to the female reproductive system.

The female reproductive system produces eggs, nurtures developing individuals, and gives birth.
Identify the stages of human development from birth to death.
Infancy, Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood
Noninfectious Disease vs infectious Diseases
Noninfectious diseases cannot be spread from one person to another.

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens that are spread from one organism to another.
How are pathogens spread
Pathogens are spread by contact with infected organisms and through contaminated objects, food, water, or air.
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