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MSA Science Vocab Physical Science

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Acceleration
the rate at which velocity changes, an object accelerates if its speed changes, if its direction changes, or if both change
Amplitude
the maximum distance a wave vibrates from its rest position
Chemical change
a change that occurs when one or more substances are changed into entirely new substances with different properties
Chemical energy
the energy of a compound that changes as its atoms are rearranged to form a new compound; chemical energy is a form of potential energy
Chemical property
a property of matter that describes a substance based on its ability to change into a new substance with different properties
Chemical reaction
the process by which one or more substances undergo change to produce one or more different substances
Compound
a pure substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined
Conduction
the transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact; conduction can also occur within a substance
Convection
a transfer of thermal energy by the movement of liquid or gas
Density
the amount of matter in a given space, mass per unit volume
Electric circuit
a complete, closed path through which electric charges flow
Electricity
energy made available by the flow of electric charge through a conductor
Element
a pure substance that cannot be separated or broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
Energy
the ability to do work
Expand
become larger in size or volume or quantity
Force
a push or a pull; all forces have both size and direction
Frequency
the number of waves produced in a given amount of time
Friction
a force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are touching
Gravitational
energy due to an objects position above the Earth's surface
Gravity
a force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses
Heat
the transfer of energy between objects that are at different temperatures
Inertia
the tendency of all objects to resist any change in motion
Kinetic energy
the energy of motion; depends on speed and mass
Light
a type of energy that travels as an electromagnetic wave
Longitudinal wave
a wave in which the particles of the medium vibrate back and forth along the path that the wave travels
Magnetic
having the properties of a magnet
Magnetic field
the region around a magnet in which magnetic forces can act
Malleability
the ability of a substance to be pounded into thin sheets
Mass
the amount of matter something is made of
Mass number
the sum of the protons and the neutrons in an atom
Mechanical energy
the total energy of motion and position of an object
Mixture
a combination of 2 of more substances that are not chemically combined
Molecule
a neutral group of atoms held together by covalent bonds
Momentum
a property of a moving object that depends on the objects mass and velocity
Motion
an objects change in position over time when compared with a reference point
Neutral atom
has no overall charge because there are equal numbers of protons and electrons
Newton's 1st Law
objects at rest tend to stay at rest, objects in motion tend to stay in motion
Newton's 2nd Law
the acceleration of an object depends on the mass of the object and the amount of force applied
Newton's 3rd Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Noble gases
the unreactive elements in group 18 of the periodic table; their atoms have 8 valence electrons except Helium
Nonmetals
elements that are dull and are poor conductors of thermal energy and electric current
Nuclear energy
the form of energy associated with changes in the nucleus of an atom
pH scale
a measurement scale of hydronium ion concentration in a solution pH 7 neutral, less than 7 acidic, more than 7 basic
Physical change
a change that affects one or more physical properties of a substance; many physical changes are easy to undo
Physical property
a property of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the matter
Pitch
how high or low a sound is perceived to be
Potential energy
the energy of position or shape
Radiation
the transfer of energy through matter or space as electromagnetic waves, such as visible light and infrared waves
Reactant
the starting materials in a chemical reaction
Reactivity
ready susceptibility to chemical change
Series circuit
a circuit in which all parts are connected in a single loop
Solar energy
energy from the sun
Solubility
the ability to dissolve in another substance
Sound
longitudinal waves created by vibrations
Speed
the rate at which an object moves
Temperature
a measure of how hot or cold something is
Transverse wave
a wave in which the particles of the waves medium vibrate perpendicular to the direction the wave is traveling
Velocity
the speed of an object in a particular direction
Vibration
the complete back-and-forth motion of an object
Wavelength
the distance between one point on a wave and the corresponding point on an adjacent wave in a series of waves
Weight
a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object, usually by the Earth
Work
the action that results when a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force