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Patho Exam 2 (Ariel Back Part)
Terms in this set (65)
which sleep cycle is being characterized here: rapid eye movements, loss of muscle movements, and vivid dreaming
acquire new sensory information
during REM sleep, the brain can replay previous memories but cannot _______________________________
FALSE during REM sleep you cannot move, but your brain is highly active
true or false? during REM sleep you can easily move but your brain activity is low.
temperature regulation is lost
metabolic rate decreases
what changes occur in the autonomic nervous system while in REM sleep?
because since your circadian is disturbed, your sleeping cycle is disturbed and you may not get proper rest for a couple of nights. Also, you experience daytime sleepiness. You will experience decreased alertness, dizziness, and edema. This can all impact cognition.
how do time zones impact cognition?
inability to concentrate
deprivation of REM sleep causes...
Time zone change (jet lag)
__________________________________ occurs when people cross several time zones during air travel and there is a difference in the persons internal circadian clock and the local time of the destination.
FALSE east travel is worst than west
true or false: when it comes to jet lag, west travel hits you harder than east travel
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is caused by an _______________________________ and is characterized by ________, _______________, and ________________
upper respiratory obstruction
snoring, disrupted sleep, and excessive tiredness
not being able to breathe for 10+ seconds while asleep
what are the risk factors for sleep apnea?
Dependence on sleeping pills to fall asleep is especially high for who?
-developing irregular side effects because their use of other medication or alcohol
-forgetting how many sleeping pills are taken, resulting in overdose
what are elderly people at risk for when using sleeping pills?
young adulthood, it is rarely diagnosed before adolescence or after middle age
the onset of schizophrenia occurs when?
lifetime cannabis use
having family history of schizophrenia
what are the risk factors for schizophrenia?
the limbic system
which region of the brain is involved in emotional experience and in the control of emotion-related behavior?
hippocampus, hypothalamus, and amygdala
what are the subparts of the limbic system?
what is the chemical in the brain that causes pleasure?
-All drugs of abuse cause a powerful surge of dopamine in the brain
-Addictive drugs provide a shortcut to the brains reward system by flooding the brain with dopamine and sometimes blocking the transmitters which then causes dopamine to remain in the brain for longer amounts of time.
how is dopamine and abusive drugs related?
what virus that causes the common cold is active during the early fall and late spring?
RSV and Adenovirus & coronavirus
what viruses that causes the common cold is active during winter and spring?
-contact with contaminated surfaces (more effective in spreading viruses)
how are the common cold viruses spread?
during the first 3 days of onset
when is the cold most contagious?
the incubation period, which is 5 days
the time from the moment of exposure to an infectious agent until signs and symptoms of the disease appear?
FALSE vitamin C does not have a lot of evidence on its effectiveness
T or F? Vitamin C will help you get rid of the cold
T or F? Nothing can cure the cold.
to inflammation of the nasal passages and sinusitis as inflammation of the paranasal sinuses
what is rhinitis?
common cold and allergic rhinitis
The symptoms of acute viral rhinosinusitis often are difficult to differentiate from those of the ______________ and _________________________
what are the symptoms of rhinitis?
coughing bringing up watery sputum
crackling breath sounds
bloody sputum (as it progresses)
loss of appetite and deterioration of mental status in older adults (sometimes)
what are the symptoms of pneumococcal pneumonia?
pituitary form, adrenal form, ectopic cushing syndrome
what are the 3 forms of the cushing syndrome?
results from excessive production of ACTH by a tumor of the pituitary gland
describe the pituitary form of cushing syndrome
caused by a benign or malignant adrenal tumor.
what is the adrenal form of cushing syndrome caused by?
caused by a nonpituitary ACTH-secreting tumor. Certain extrapituitary malignant tumors may secrete ACTH or, rarely, CRH, and produce Cushing syndrome
describe the ectopic cushing syndrome form:
T or F? Cushing syndrome can also result from long-term therapy with one of the potent pharmacologic preparations of glucocorticoids
cushing syndrome that is caused by long-term therapy with one of the potent pharmacologic preparations of glucocorticoids
describe the iatrogenic form of cushing syndrome:
-altered fat metabolism causes a protruding abdomen, fat lump on back, round fat face
-with thin extremities
what are symptoms of cushing syndrome?
decreased resistance to infection
in late stages, pain
what are some symptoms of cancer?
_______________ is a condition in which your pituitary gland doesn't secrete enough pituitary hormones
they don't get the hormones they need
what happens to thyroid and adrenal glands when you have hypopituitarism?
it gets destroyed
what happens to the pituitary gland during hypopituitarism?
loss of appetite
decreased sex drive
what are the symptoms of hypopituitarism?
a shortage of GHRH (growth hormone releasing hormone)
what causes short stature in children?
Deficiency of ___________ doesn't affect intelligence, but causes short stature, obesity with immature facial features, delay in puberty, and some delay in skeletal maturation.
GH replacement therapy is used
the therapy goes as followed: GH is administered daily through SC (subcutaneous) injection during the period of active growth (childhood)
what is used to treat shortage of the growth hormone, and how?
_______________________ is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the abnormal stimulation of the thyroid gland by TSH
ophthalmopathy (protruding eyeballs)
enlarged thyroid gland
graves' disease is a common cause of __________________ and is accompanied by ________________ and ________________________________
what are symptoms of graves' disease
____________________ is a group of symptoms caused by severe adrenal insufficiency from insufficient levels of cortisol
_________________ is cognitive impairment with a blood glucose concentration that is less than 60mg/dl
because the brain and nervous system rely almost exclusively on glucose, and glucose levels are very low with hypoglycemia
why does cognitive impairment occur with hypoglycemia?
Severe and prolonged hypoglycemia can cause _____________________, and even moderate hypoglycemia can result in substantial _____________________
type 1 diabetes that don't eat
fail to take insulin
hypoglycemia occurs in people with/that....
altered cerebral function and activation of autonomic nervous system
what are the two categories of hypoglycemia?
mental confusion or unresponsiveness
what are the symptoms of the ALTERED CEREBRAL FUNCTION category of hypoglycemia?
constriction of the skin vessels
what are the symptoms of the ACTIVATION OF AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM category of hypoglycemia?
any degree of glucose intolerance that occurs during pregnancy
complications of pregnancy
Women with GS are at a higher risk for ______________________________
a glucose drink is ingested and blood is drawn 1-2 hours later. The person has gestational diabetes if blood levels are as followed:
1 hour 180 (10)
2 hours 153 (8.5)
how do you diagnose gestational diabetes?
an efficient energy fuel that body tissues obtain from the blood
Glucose is made in the ________ during a process called _________________
what is the normal glucose level in a person?
After a meal, the blood glucose levels rise and _______ is secreted to lower the blood glucose levels.
Glucose that is not needed for energy is removed from the blood and stored as glycogen in the liver or stored as _____
Between meals, the liver breaks down ___________ and releases glucose to maintain the normal blood glucose levels.
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