CSD 459 Exam #1 Study Guide
Terms in this set (44)
How do we write a prognostic statement within a report?
Prognosis for (improved speech/language/hearing disorder) is judged to be (what) based upon (prognostic indicators)
Can be excellent, good, fair, guarded, poor
When might we complete screenings?
When kids are entering elementary school
Part of long term care
What is secondary prevention?
The EARLY DETECTION and treatment of communication disorders. Early detection may lead to the elimination of the disorder or the retardation of the disorder's progress, thereby preventing further complications.
Name a secondary prevention technique
What is incidence?
A rate of new occurrences of a condition in a population free of the disorder within a specified time period
What is the difference between formal and informal assessments?
Formal: standardized tests
Informal: observations, assessments without normative data
What kinds of information are we trying to gather prior to the evaluation?
Speech language behaviors
Estimated or actual hearing
Attitudes that may affect therapy
Effects of prior therapy techniques
Effective reinforcers and activities
Non speech language problems: social, motor, medical
What are the services we provide?
What is prevalence?
The total rate or proportion of cases in a population at or during a specified time period
What are the purposes of documentation? (7)
to serve as the basis for planning patient care and for continuity between evaluation and treatment
To document course of patient's eval, treatment, and change in condition
To document communication among health care professionals who contribute to the patient's care both within a facility and outside of a facility
To assist in protecting the legal interest of the pt, facility, and practitioner, responsible for pt care
To provide data for research and education
** Be able to discuss these...what do they mean?
What are some of the considerations we need to make during an interview? (be able to discuss these)
Time, appear to have plenty of it and be in control of it
Physical setting of the room, seating arrangement, appearance, privacy
Harmonious relationship, trust, be on time, make them feel important
Investigate the problem from the patient's perspective
Types of questions
Open vs closed
Attending to your client
Nod head, lean in, eye contact, don't write down every word (record key words)
Listening with empathetic responses
Show that you care "I can imagine how hard this is for you"
** Be able to discuss/describe the considerations (as opposed to just listing them). Look at your notes for additional examples for some of the considerations.
What is epidemiology?
An observational science which investigates distribution and determinants of disease and disorders in populations
What is ASHA's position Statement related to prevention?
Utilize consistent terminology related to prevention
Play a significant role in the development and application of prevention strategies
Expand research into the causes of communication disorders and variable which influence the development and maintenance of communication abilities
Educate colleagues and the general public relative to personal wellness strategies as they relate to the prevention of communication disorders
What do we consider when choosing a test for assessment?
Age limits and age appropriateness
Population that the test was normed on
Areas that the test assesses
Length of time to administer the test
Reliability of the test
Validity of the test
What is Wellness? What is it NOT?
The development and maintenance of an optimal level of competence appropriate to any given stage of the life cycle
IT IS NOT THE SAME AS HAVING PERFECT HEALTH!
When discussing prevention, what do we mean by "play a significant role in development and application of prevention strategies"?
Understand conditions that put individuals AT RISK and conditions that PROMOTE OPTIMAL communication abilities
Present primary prevention information to groups known to be at risk for communication disorders
Provide individual, family, and community focused primary prevention services, including early identification and intervention services
How do we write a diagnostic statement?
Ex: mild voice disorder, secondary to vocal nodules
How do we gather information prior to an evaluation?
Questionnaires sent to clients/families
School, medical, SLP, AUD, other disciplines
Phone call to client/family
Break ice, ask questions, explain upcoming procedures
What is primary prevention?
The elimination or inhibition of the onset and development of a communication disorder by altering susceptibility or reducing exposure for susceptible persons
What is the difference between an open and closed interview question?
Client response is controlled
Tells you what is most important to the client
May give you info you didn't consider asking about
Can give you a Speech/language sample
Can include irrelevant info
Communication impairment can make this difficult
What does a test manual tell you about test administration
How to present stimulus
What counts as a correct vs. incorrect response
How to mark the test booklet
If the entire test needs to be administered
Practice items that could be reviewed prior to beginning a set of test items
If basals and ceilings exist
** Be able to discuss these, what do they mean?
How do we do primary prevention?
Testimonials from persons or families who have been affected
What general behaviors should we observe during the interview? (be able to discuss each of these)
Opening and closing sentences
Motivation, why they are there, who encouraged it, etc.
Be a good listener
Inconsistencies or gaps
Facial expression, body language
Help in therapy sessions
Be able to discuss these....do not have to list them
What information is provided during an intake phone call?
Description of the problem
What is a screening? What are screenings used for? (what level of prevention)
A mini test to determine the POSSIBLE presence of a disorder and to determine the need for further testing
This is used in secondary prevention
What is tertiary prevention?
The reduction of a disability by attempting to RESTORE effective functioning
What diagnostic questions do we want to answer with an assessment?
Does a communication disorder or difference exist?
What are the specifics of the disorder/difference
What are the clients communicative/cognitive/swallowing/hearing STRENGTHS
What are the weaknesses
What is the magnitude of the disorder/difference
What is the cause of the disorder
What is the prognosis for improvement
What types of remediation are possible for the disorder/difference
What should you avoid in an interview? (be able to discuss these)
Talking too much
Advising and providing information and suggestions prematurely
Using question types inappropriately
Criticism of other professionals
* You don't need to list these, be able to discuss them
What is missing from this diagnostic statement?
->Dysarthria, secondary to CVA
You would choose from one of the following:
Why is it important to videotape/ audiotape an evaluation?
To fill in gaps of information that you may have missed when scoring the test during the evaluation
To complete a reliability check on yourself: did you score correctly the first time?
To self evaluate your performance during the evaluation
What is the first part of a behavioral objective
Always the client, what you want the CLIENT to shoot for
Could be family members so that when the clinician leaves, treatment is carried out
NEVER THE CLINICIAN
What are the two strategies we use to select behaviors (step 2 in planning a therapy program)
Look at typical kids (standardized tests) and see where your client is at
Developmental issue (children)
Client specific strategy
Match goals with what is best for the client; while using norms as broad guidelines
Explain what a task analysis is:
Describes the sub-skills and sub-concepts a student must acquire in order to master a complex skill or interrelated set of concepts and principles
ID the sub-skills within a complex task
ID the order
ID the sub-skills in detail
How do we teach the client from going from no expressive language to communicating
How do you teach children how to read?
Learn in baby steps, phonemic cues, etc.
How do clinicians prepare for a close-out?
Need adequate time to collate, score, and analyze test results
Prepare an outline of general topics and overall findings that you need to discuss
Practice saying out loud what you plan to say
Try to ascertain if the client/family is highly anxious about the disorder and results
What kind of verb do we use for the "do statement" within a behavioral objective?
OBSERVABLE AND MEASUREABLE!!!
States what the learner is supposed to be doing
Ask yourself "can I count it?"
NOT A STATE OF BEING!!!
Never use "will be able to ____"
How do we open a close-out? And provide at least one example of each of the three steps
1. Begin with a brief, general orientation statement about what is going to occur
"Hi Mr. Smith this is the part of the evaluation where we talk about what we found and what we will do from here on out"
2. Give information on what areas you will discuss
"We will talk about how well you are able to express yourself, your reading and writing skills, and how you understand other people.
We will talk about how he pronounces his sounds."
3. Give information about whether a satisfactory/ representative sample was obtained
"I got enough information during the evaluation that I think I have a clear picture of what is going on."
"I have some preliminary results that I would like to share with you, but I would like to do more testing when you come back"
What is the rationale for a task analysis?
It gives a plan or blueprint for teaching a complex skill
It allows you to pick a BEGINNING place
What is the minimum/maximum percentage in objectives and why?
Maximum is not 100%, no more than 95%
Why? We don't expect "perfect" performance on goals
Minimum is 70% accuracy
You do not want a lower percentage
Want your client to have as much positive practice as possible
If you write it at a lower percentage, a significant amount of time you are expecting your client to be wrong
That means they are practicing it incorrectly just as much as they are practicing it correctly
What are the steps of a task analysis?
1. State terminal behavior in behavioral form =LONG TERM GOAL
2. ID sequence the sub-skills=SHORT TERM GOALS
3. Informally assess which sub-skills the client can perform
4. Begin teaching with the easiest sub-skill the client has not already learned
How do we write the condition of an objective?
CAN BE THE AMOUNT OF SUPPORT PROVIDED BY THE CLINICIAN
Ex: given a phonemic cue
Ex: when given a repetition of the command
CAN BE FURTHER EXPLANATION OF "DO"
Can be the context/level of difficulty
Ex: with an unfamiliar partner
Ex: in the initial position of words
In the client specific strategy, how are behaviors chosen?
1. Studying the clients environment/what they need to do within the environment
Example: ecological inventory
2. Choosing behaviors that are useful and relevant
Example: work on vocabulary with kids, labeling body parts is not that useful (appropriate developmentally), child has other issues, so need to focus on what's relevant
3. Choosing behaviors that have potential for generalization
Apply to both strategies
Skills you teach, happen outside of the session=ULTIMATE GOAL!
4. Choosing behaviors that will serve as building blocks for new behaviors
Applies to both strategies
What is included in the closing of a close out?
-Summarize major points
-Ask if any questions
-Review next steps in clinical process
"So, we have recommended therapy three times a week, lets do down to the clinic and make an appointment"
Or "I'll check in with you on Thursday to see what you are thinking"
What is a comprehension check during the close out?
Does that make sense?"
"Do you have any questions at this point?"
If you wait until the end, they will forget what they had a question about
Do this THROUGHOUT the close out
What are the 5 steps of planning a therapy program?
1. Decide on the communion area to treat
2. Decide on the specific skills/sub-skills within the communication area
3. Decide on goals or end product to be reached within communication areas
4. Deciding treatment approach to best reach goals
5. Decide on treatment strategies to best reach goals