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For Final Exams. Includes major questions on study guide.

What is the function of the digestive system? Why is it important?

It turns your food into small enough pieces to be absorbed and turned into energy. It digests mechanically and chemically.

Explain the things/functions that help your food move through the digestive tract.

paristalsis, mucus, fiber


chemically digests food with the help of your teeth and tongue, chemically breaks down starch, turns food into a bolus

salivary glands

produce saliva which contains the enzyme amylase with breaks down starch in the mouth


uses peristalsis to move food from the mouth to the stomach


produces bile which deactivates acids and enzymes in the small intestine


chemically breaks down protein with hydrocloric acid (HCl) and pepsin (which both make up gastric juice), mechanically breaks down food into chyme with three layers of muscle

gall bladder

stores bile produced by the liver until it is needed in the duodenum

large intestine

acts as a "dryer;" extracts water and minerals from feces


produces pancreatic juice

small intestine

finishes up digestion and through diffusion extracts nutrients with villi - most chemical digestion occurs here, major absorption


holding tank for feces


sphincter muscle, releases feces

What is your normal body temperature?


List the six nutrients:

minerals, water, vitamins, proteins, carbs, fats

What are the three types of carbs?

simple sugar (glucose) - found in fruits, honey, etc.
starch - found in bread, pasta
fiber - found in fruits, veggies, grains

What is a positive result for Benedict's solution? Negative?

positive - green/yellow/orange/red
negative - blue

What is a control?

A control is something we know the result of so we can compare results with it to come to conclusions.

What are amino acids?

Amino acids are the "building blocks" of protein. Your body needs 20, but it only produces 11 naturally. The other nine come from food. All foods from an animal are a complete amino acid.

What is diffusion?

The movement of cells from a concentrated place to a less concentrated place.

What is the function of the respiratory system? Why is it important?

Its function is to retain oxygen needed for cellular respiration, and to dispose of water and carbon dioxide (waste products of cellular respiration).

What is cellular respiration?

Cellular respiration is when the mitochondria in your cells turn nutrients (specifically glucose) and oxygen into energy, water, and carbon dioxide.

How does the gas exchange work in your lungs?

Capillaries around the alveoli exchange carbon dioxide for oxygen through diffusion.

What happens when you inhale? Exhale?

When you inhale your diaphragm contracts/moves down, your intercostal muscles contract/move your ribcage up and out, and the volume in your chest cavity increases. When you exhale you do the opposite.

What is the function of the circulatory system? Why is it important?

Its function is to be the "highway" for nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and other waste products. It is important because we need to get rid of waste so it doesn't turn into poison and also because we need oxygen and nutrients to get to our cells for cellular respiration.

What is involved in pulmonary circulation?

Pulmonary circulation is circulation to the lungs and back. It involves the pulmonary artery, pulmonary vein, the right ventricle, and the left atrium.

What is involved in systemic circulation?

Systemic circulation is circulation to your body cells and back. It involves the left ventricle, aorta, vena cava, and right atrium.

What is the function of a red blood cell? White blood cell? Platelet? Plasma?

red blood cell - to carry oxygen, nutrients, carbon dioxide, etc.
white blood cell - to fight infections
platelet - to clot/patch holes in blood vessel walls
plasma - to provide a "river" to carry blood cells

What is the average heart rate?

72 bpm (beats per minute)

What kinds of foods can cause high blood pressure?

foods with excess salt, sugar, or fat

What are the five functions of the skeletal system?

1. to produce blood cells
2. to provide places for skeletal muscles to attach
3. to protect organs
4. to store minerals (calcium, phosphorus)
5. to create support and shape for your body

What is the difference between tendons and ligaments?

Tendons connect bones and muscles; ligaments connect bones and bones.

How does our body maintain homeostasis while we are cold? While we are hot?

When we are cold we shiver which creates muscle contractions which creates heat, and our hair stands on end to keep heat in. Also our blood vessels move away from our skin to keep heat in. When we are hot we sweat which releases heat to cool us down. Also our blood vessels move towards our skin to release heat.

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