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Barter Economy

an early method of trade -trading goods are used as currency instead of money

Bronze Age

around 3500-1500 bce when bronze replaced stone and farming , art,trade, warfare and the overall lifestyle of people was more advanced
-Writing even bagan to show up during this period of time


Writing developed by the Sumerians; began as pictographs and gradually developed into cuneiform "wedge shaped"


an epic poem of the journey of Gilgamesh and Enkidu used by the Mesopotamian people to answer questions of life and death


(1792-1750) King of the Semetic people the Amorites (Babylon) created "Hammurabis Code" w/ very strict laws


Ancient Egyptian written language


New Stone Age ; food produced by farming -slash and burn cultivation; semi nomadic; 7000-3500 bce


720 mile long river running through Egypt providing rich fertile soil great for farming and transportation; most predictable flood cycle


"the old stone age"; primativestonne tools and weapons w/ the hunters and gatherers system 400,000-7000


Egypt's political and religeous leader ; believed to become a god after death; job to remain ma'at


an economic concept - humans have unlimited wants but limited recourses


first to develop Bronze age lifestyle in Mesopotamia ; written language, advanced agriculture etc.


Take over the Indus Valley as part of the Indo- European Invasion with written language "Sanskrit"
religion of Brahmanism


created by Saddartha Gautama; off branch of Brahmanism; focuses on the the main ideas of asceticism , four noble truths and the eights fold path

Caste System

Indians Hereditary class of social equals with the same religion and occupation who limit their social interactions with others


Off branch of Brahmanism ; almost everything's the same with the leading idea of Dharma "moral law"
-major religion in China and India

Indo- Europeans

refers to "family" of languages including English, Greek, Latin, Persian, and Sanskrit

Indus Valley Civilization

Bronze Age civilization- 2500bce- had a complex gov., religion, construction, language, and even underground plumbing


off-branch of Brahmanism founded by Vardhamana Mahavira 520 bce
-more physical then buddhism -believes your soul(Atman) is waiting to be freed to divine reality ; ignores the caste system


the tally of good and bad deeds determining the status of an individuals next life


release from the wheel of life in Brahmanism


Buddism form of reincarnation
- a state of blissful nothinenes


Indians most important colllection of sacred texts ; central to the Aryans


"moral way" created by Young Kong Qiu in the book of Analects
Three moral principals of Xao, Li, and Ren


created by Laozi in " The Classic Way of Virtue" notion of effortless and non-action

First Emperor

Qin ( Chiin Dynasty), where china got its name he unified china after a series of civil wars ; changed the title of king to Emperor


from the late Zhao Era
created by Han Fei ; emphasizes law as governments main force; believes all suffering comes from a lack of government

Mandate of Heaven

political theory in ancient china; The idea that the power to rule is given to the king/emp by the gods


"first Emporer"
standardized written language


legendary wise men-first kings of China; kings or gods


"shang" Dynasty in China during the Bronze Age-1500bce ; the second dynasty

Yin Yang

a concept of complementary pole sone which represents the feminine, dark receptive, and the other masculine bright and assertive


"zhou" Dynasty during the Iron or Axial Age between 1000-2000bce; 3rd Chinese dynasty

Assyrian Empire

900-612bce; major empire in Mesopotamia ; Capital-Nineveh; and gov. characterized by very brutal rulers

Cyrus the Great

king of the Persian Empire ( 559-530bce) conquers west trade and Iranian tribes


monotheistic religion based in Jerusalem with the Hebrews ; started when the Hebrews followed Moses from Egypt

Persian Empire

Cyrus the Great conquered the Medes resulting in the Persian Empire ; became the biggest emp. of the time from Turkey to Indian ; Philosophy: do not give the ppl a reason to revolt

Yahweh (YHWH)

Jewish name for god


religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster; emphasized a persons responsibility to choose between good and evil


an elevated point w/o a city for religios buildings such as temples, altars tec.

Alexander the Great

student of aristotle and ruler of the Greek Empire and had a vision of world conquest and accomplishes that partially expanding the empire all the way to Asia turning around in India after his troops refused to continue, dieing soon afterwards


student of Plato; greek thinker who observed natural phenomenon to explain the cosmos . Focuses onthe real world
Believed in theory aristocracy is the best form of gov. and in the real world polity is the best


capital of Greece ; center of of the trading networks ; known for olive oil and great naval force

Delian League

a naval alliance , created by the Athenians and aimed at liberation Ionia from Persian rule


A type of Greek Gov. in which all citizens , w/o regard to birth or wealth, administered the workings of gov.
"power of the people"


greek term (sparta) for state slaves who did most manual labor


writer of the Theogeny which was a collection of myths


wrote the Illiad and the Odyssey


idea that to be a powerful country you had to be rich; colonies exist to produce wealth for the homeland; trade and economy plan for Greece


one of the earliest civilizations in Greece named after "king Minos" During the Bronze Age

Mount Olympus

the great mountain home of the Greek gods


during the Bronze Age and one of the earliest civilization with the minoans

Olympic Games

founded in 776bce; strongest men in greece woulld gather for friendly competion


rule of few; small groups of wealthy citizens


Ruler of Athens in 431 bce witht he goal to make athens the showplace of Greece and to destroy Sparta: abandon all land and retreat behind city walls


a greek military fighting system with rows of men usualy 8 rows deep started by the Spartans

Phillip II of Macedon

father of Alexander the Great; ruled Macedonia 354-336bce and made Macedonia a superpower by uniting tribes , creating a military, and adopting greek culture


student of Socrates ; Founded the Academy- a school of philosophy
believed the world was the center of the universe


"city state" basic political and social unit of Greece


-phylisophical thinkers before socrates during the Archaic Age in Ionia

Ptolmaic Kingdom

a division of the Hellenistic Kingdom in Egypt

Seleucid Kingdom

a division of the Hellenistic kingdom in Asia


Greek polis known for its military; enemy of athens ; women were semi free


(470-399bce) firts major greek philosopher ; focuse don himan behavior ; started the Sophists; dies after being arrested from drinking hemlock


rule by a tirant- one man who gained their power by violent means


the grand nephew of Caesar and originally named Octavian. ruler during the Pax Romana or raman peace; appointed himself the first princeps civitatis or citizen of the state; "Roma et Augustus"

Barracks emperors

20-30 empores for 50 years during the 200's of Rome causing completer turmoil in rome; started in the end of the Sevari Dynasty


last pharaoh of Egypt; had an affair with julius Caesar and she in return is helped to win a war with pompey ; and later a child and relationship with Marc Antony


two cheif magistrates elected for one year terms in Rome


last of the Barracks emps.;divides the emp. into w. and e. ; developes tetrachy- plan of succession ; temporarily makes caash unacceptable; last emp. to persecute the christians

Edict of Milan

Created by the east and roman emps Constantine and Licinious and does five things: legalizes Christianity, Christian churches can buy property; church is not exempt from taxes; allowed to handle own legal affairs and run its own courts.

Five Good Emps./ Antonines

Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. under their rules trade increases, military gets stronger, persecution is the worst


leader of Carthages military during the second Punic War ; plan was to amass a huge army in Spain and Attack Rome by going through the Alps and have a land invasion to the North; Defeats Romans in the Battle of Cannae; burns everything

Julius Caesar

part of the 1st triumvirate; 50bce conquers Gaul; 49 bce fights Pompey and wins with help from Cleopatra ; accomplishes a series of reforms such as making a dent in the land crisis; later murdered


huge roman estates owned by wealthy families; created by buying several smaller farms

Marc Antony

part of the second triumvirate; had a child with Cleopatra- become OBSESSED; and loses the battle of Actium ; commits suicide

Mare Nostrum

a term for the Mediterranean meaning "our sea"

Mobile legion

Romans restructured military version of thegreek phalanx during the early republic


The oldest male of a roman household in charge of everything and everyone


wealthy elite of Rome ; aristocrats and land owners


the common people of Rome


senatus populus romanus - roman senate and people ; sovereignty lies in the hands of the Senate and people during the early republic

Struggle of the Orders

Roman social conflict in which the plebians boycotted their power as a unit to the partricians; refused to fight and farm; this lead to the rights of the aw of the Twelve Tables, Licinian Sextian Rogations and the Lex Hortensia. made them equal.


5th Julio Claudian ; rule led to military rebellion and widespread disruption; kills Paul; first to persecute the Christians


" Augustus" part of the 2nd triumvirate ; talks baldy about Marc Antony because he was spending too much time away from Rome ; defeats him in the battle of Actium


convinced the senate to let him run for consul after his military successes in Spain

Scipio Africanus

young roman soldier during the 2nd punic war who has a plan: take all navy and attack Carthage; defeats Carthage in the battle of Zama

Bull of Excommunication

Western and Eastern Churches meet and formally excommunicate each other

Filioque Dispute

dispute between east and west about trinity ; filioque- "and the son"
West thinks god the father and son are the same; east thinks God the Father and then God and Son

Corpus Juris Civilis

the body of civil law in the Byzantine Empire created by Justinieans jurists: composed of the Code , Digest, and Institutes

Justinian the Great

3 main goals : reconquer west , reorganize the government, and strengthen and beatify Constantinople; temporarily regained Italy and North Africa; built the Hagia Sophia

Hagia Sophia

largest Christian cathedral built by Justinian in Constantinople

Iconclasm Conflict

the conflict that resulted from the destruction of Christian images in Byzantine churches in 730 by Emperor Leo III ; debating whether icons are a form of idolatry

Emperor Leo III

destroyed icons in Byzantine churches in 730 ; emperor during siege of Constantinople

St. Patrick

converted Ireland to Christianity


Emperor Justinian's Wife ; very independent intelligent woman that influenced Justinian greatly


Byzantine emperor who makes Christianity the official religion and makes it illegal to be other religions

St. Benedict of Nursia

wrote the rule of st. Benedict; form of monasticism; focused on prayer, service and discipline; most popular in the West

St. Augustine of Hippo

wrote about human nature and role of government in 2 major books : confessions and City of God


king of the Franks in 481-511; founded Merovingian dynasty; converted to Christianity, and sets up gov. w/ early version of feudalism; creates counts to manage districts


highest church officials in the eastern church


all land goes to oldest son; British system of inheritance

Charles Martel

Carolingian mayor of the palace; brings back the use of stirrups on his saddle; will not let any Merovingian become king; fights Muslims in 732/733 at the Battle of Tours/poitiers; father of Pippin III

Pippins Donation

Pippin III gives the Pope the Papal States

Pope Leo III

Roman nobles beat him up and arrested him; put on trial that Charlemagne listened to; Charlemagne claimed him innocent; Pope rewarded him by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor


son of Pippin III; crowned HRE by Pope Leo III; conquers a lot of land; great administrator-complex feudalism and created missi domininci to check up on counts; began Carolingian Renaissance even though dyslexic
he was a GINGER.

Carolingian Renaissance

rebirth of literacy and scholarship; emphasizes need for literacy

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