around 3500-1500 bce when bronze replaced stone and farming , art,trade, warfare and the overall lifestyle of people was more advanced
-Writing even bagan to show up during this period of time
Writing developed by the Sumerians; began as pictographs and gradually developed into cuneiform "wedge shaped"
an epic poem of the journey of Gilgamesh and Enkidu used by the Mesopotamian people to answer questions of life and death
(1792-1750) King of the Semetic people the Amorites (Babylon) created "Hammurabis Code" w/ very strict laws
New Stone Age ; food produced by farming -slash and burn cultivation; semi nomadic; 7000-3500 bce
720 mile long river running through Egypt providing rich fertile soil great for farming and transportation; most predictable flood cycle
"the old stone age"; primativestonne tools and weapons w/ the hunters and gatherers system 400,000-7000
Egypt's political and religeous leader ; believed to become a god after death; job to remain ma'at
first to develop Bronze age lifestyle in Mesopotamia ; written language, advanced agriculture etc.
Take over the Indus Valley as part of the Indo- European Invasion with written language "Sanskrit"
religion of Brahmanism
created by Saddartha Gautama; off branch of Brahmanism; focuses on the the main ideas of asceticism , four noble truths and the eights fold path
Indians Hereditary class of social equals with the same religion and occupation who limit their social interactions with others
Off branch of Brahmanism ; almost everything's the same with the leading idea of Dharma "moral law"
-major religion in China and India
refers to "family" of languages including English, Greek, Latin, Persian, and Sanskrit
Indus Valley Civilization
Bronze Age civilization- 2500bce- had a complex gov., religion, construction, language, and even underground plumbing
off-branch of Brahmanism founded by Vardhamana Mahavira 520 bce
-more physical then buddhism -believes your soul(Atman) is waiting to be freed to divine reality ; ignores the caste system
"moral way" created by Young Kong Qiu in the book of Analects
Three moral principals of Xao, Li, and Ren
Qin ( Chiin Dynasty), where china got its name he unified china after a series of civil wars ; changed the title of king to Emperor
from the late Zhao Era
created by Han Fei ; emphasizes law as governments main force; believes all suffering comes from a lack of government
Mandate of Heaven
political theory in ancient china; The idea that the power to rule is given to the king/emp by the gods
a concept of complementary pole sone which represents the feminine, dark receptive, and the other masculine bright and assertive
900-612bce; major empire in Mesopotamia ; Capital-Nineveh; and gov. characterized by very brutal rulers
monotheistic religion based in Jerusalem with the Hebrews ; started when the Hebrews followed Moses from Egypt
Cyrus the Great conquered the Medes resulting in the Persian Empire ; became the biggest emp. of the time from Turkey to Indian ; Philosophy: do not give the ppl a reason to revolt
religion based on the teachings of Zoroaster; emphasized a persons responsibility to choose between good and evil
Alexander the Great
student of aristotle and ruler of the Greek Empire and had a vision of world conquest and accomplishes that partially expanding the empire all the way to Asia turning around in India after his troops refused to continue, dieing soon afterwards
student of Plato; greek thinker who observed natural phenomenon to explain the cosmos . Focuses onthe real world
Believed in theory aristocracy is the best form of gov. and in the real world polity is the best
capital of Greece ; center of of the trading networks ; known for olive oil and great naval force
a naval alliance , created by the Athenians and aimed at liberation Ionia from Persian rule
A type of Greek Gov. in which all citizens , w/o regard to birth or wealth, administered the workings of gov.
"power of the people"
idea that to be a powerful country you had to be rich; colonies exist to produce wealth for the homeland; trade and economy plan for Greece
Ruler of Athens in 431 bce witht he goal to make athens the showplace of Greece and to destroy Sparta: abandon all land and retreat behind city walls
a greek military fighting system with rows of men usualy 8 rows deep started by the Spartans
Phillip II of Macedon
father of Alexander the Great; ruled Macedonia 354-336bce and made Macedonia a superpower by uniting tribes , creating a military, and adopting greek culture
student of Socrates ; Founded the Academy- a school of philosophy
believed the world was the center of the universe
(470-399bce) firts major greek philosopher ; focuse don himan behavior ; started the Sophists; dies after being arrested from drinking hemlock
the grand nephew of Caesar and originally named Octavian. ruler during the Pax Romana or raman peace; appointed himself the first princeps civitatis or citizen of the state; "Roma et Augustus"
20-30 empores for 50 years during the 200's of Rome causing completer turmoil in rome; started in the end of the Sevari Dynasty
last pharaoh of Egypt; had an affair with julius Caesar and she in return is helped to win a war with pompey ; and later a child and relationship with Marc Antony
last of the Barracks emps.;divides the emp. into w. and e. ; developes tetrachy- plan of succession ; temporarily makes caash unacceptable; last emp. to persecute the christians
Edict of Milan
Created by the east and roman emps Constantine and Licinious and does five things: legalizes Christianity, Christian churches can buy property; church is not exempt from taxes; allowed to handle own legal affairs and run its own courts.
Five Good Emps./ Antonines
Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. under their rules trade increases, military gets stronger, persecution is the worst
leader of Carthages military during the second Punic War ; plan was to amass a huge army in Spain and Attack Rome by going through the Alps and have a land invasion to the North; Defeats Romans in the Battle of Cannae; burns everything
part of the 1st triumvirate; 50bce conquers Gaul; 49 bce fights Pompey and wins with help from Cleopatra ; accomplishes a series of reforms such as making a dent in the land crisis; later murdered
part of the second triumvirate; had a child with Cleopatra- become OBSESSED; and loses the battle of Actium ; commits suicide
senatus populus romanus - roman senate and people ; sovereignty lies in the hands of the Senate and people during the early republic
Struggle of the Orders
Roman social conflict in which the plebians boycotted their power as a unit to the partricians; refused to fight and farm; this lead to the rights of the aw of the Twelve Tables, Licinian Sextian Rogations and the Lex Hortensia. made them equal.
5th Julio Claudian ; rule led to military rebellion and widespread disruption; kills Paul; first to persecute the Christians
" Augustus" part of the 2nd triumvirate ; talks baldy about Marc Antony because he was spending too much time away from Rome ; defeats him in the battle of Actium
young roman soldier during the 2nd punic war who has a plan: take all navy and attack Carthage; defeats Carthage in the battle of Zama
dispute between east and west about trinity ; filioque- "and the son"
West thinks god the father and son are the same; east thinks God the Father and then God and Son
Corpus Juris Civilis
the body of civil law in the Byzantine Empire created by Justinieans jurists: composed of the Code , Digest, and Institutes
Justinian the Great
3 main goals : reconquer west , reorganize the government, and strengthen and beatify Constantinople; temporarily regained Italy and North Africa; built the Hagia Sophia
the conflict that resulted from the destruction of Christian images in Byzantine churches in 730 by Emperor Leo III ; debating whether icons are a form of idolatry
Emperor Leo III
destroyed icons in Byzantine churches in 730 ; emperor during siege of Constantinople
Emperor Justinian's Wife ; very independent intelligent woman that influenced Justinian greatly
Byzantine emperor who makes Christianity the official religion and makes it illegal to be other religions
St. Benedict of Nursia
wrote the rule of st. Benedict; form of monasticism; focused on prayer, service and discipline; most popular in the West
St. Augustine of Hippo
wrote about human nature and role of government in 2 major books : confessions and City of God
king of the Franks in 481-511; founded Merovingian dynasty; converted to Christianity, and sets up gov. w/ early version of feudalism; creates counts to manage districts
Carolingian mayor of the palace; brings back the use of stirrups on his saddle; will not let any Merovingian become king; fights Muslims in 732/733 at the Battle of Tours/poitiers; father of Pippin III
Pope Leo III
Roman nobles beat him up and arrested him; put on trial that Charlemagne listened to; Charlemagne claimed him innocent; Pope rewarded him by crowning him Holy Roman Emperor
son of Pippin III; crowned HRE by Pope Leo III; conquers a lot of land; great administrator-complex feudalism and created missi domininci to check up on counts; began Carolingian Renaissance even though dyslexic
he was a GINGER.