Vocabulary for Unit 4
Terms in this set (49)
Age of Reason
temples built by Sumerians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped, a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions
Akbar the Great
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written, (1542-1605) Emperor of the Mughal Empire in India. He is considered to be their greatest ruler. He is responsible for the expansion of his empire, the stability his administration gave to it, and the increasing of trade and cultural diffusion.
Fort established in 1619 as headquarters of Dutch East India Company operations in Indonesia; today the city of Jakarta.
(1509-1564) Theologian and church reformer who developed a form of Protestantism during the Reformation. His church is known for the idea of predestination, which states certain people are predestined for heaven.
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus's voyages.
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Dutch East India Company
Government-chartered joint-stock company that controlled the spice trade in the East Indies.
of or relating to or characteristic of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Edict of Nates
document that granted religious freedom to the huguenots
Edict of Fountainbleu
revoked Edict of Nantes-Huguenots lost right to practice Calvinism-fled
Elizabeth I of England
She supported the northern protestant cause as a safeguard against Spain attacking England. She had her rival, Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded. Elizabeth I of England succeeded Mary and reestablished Protestantism in England. (p.471-73, 494-96, 521) User-contributed
priviledge given by Spain to Spanish settlers in the Americas which allowed to control the lands and people of a certain territory
English Bill of Rights
King William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
This was the period of time when the Parliament was the head of England, and Declared England a republic
voyages to new territories by European navigators in the 15th century,
Eager to eliminate Muslim middlemen and find more efficient trade routes, the Portuguese and the Spanish set out to sea (nicknamed "floating empires"); they soon controlled many major shipping routes
Island off the coast of India that was the base of Portuguese trade
Gutenberg's Printing Press
This invention helped to promote the Reformation and increased European literacy
similar to the feudal system, Natives got money and had to buy their products from their owners, Replaced the Economienda system.
Hapsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1506-1700), when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty. Under Habsburg rule (chiefly under Charles V and Philip II of Spain), Spain reached the zenith of its influence and power, controlling territory. For well over a century, was the world's greatest power.
son of Henry VII and King of England from 1509 to 1547
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Holy Roman Empire
the lands ruled by Charlemagne
pardon sold by catholic church to reduce one's punishment
a severe interrogation (often violating the rights or privacy of individuals)
those Christian slaves who were not selected for the Ottoman bureaucracy served loyally instead in the Turkish army
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Law of Heavenly Bodies
Copernicus believed that heavenly bodies were in constant rotation
(1483-1546) Theologian and religious reformer who started the Reformation with his 95 Theses which protested church corruption, namely the sale of indulgences.
Louis XIV of France
He ruled through absolutism and believed in divine right. He was the "Sun King" because he reigned from 1643-1715, the longest in European history. He restored the Palace of Versailles. He revoked the Edict of Nantes because he did like division within his realm. He carried out the expansionist policy to the full extent. He was at war 33 of his 54-year personal rule. Believed in absolute monarchy. He ruled absolutely. (536)
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
Peter the Great
czar of Russia who introduced ideas from western Europe to reform the government
Philip II of Spain
king of Spain and Portugal and husband of Mary I, The son of Charles V who later became husband to Mary I and king of Spain and Portugal. He supported the Counter Reformation and sent the Spanish Armada to invade England (1527-1598) He was a intolerant, Catholic king.
Potosi Silver Mine
A city developed around a silver mine in Potosí, Bolivia- people involved got very rich- during 16th century Spain
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
the revival of learning and culture
Roman Catholic Church
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
a series of steps followed to solve problems
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
Silver or Single Whip System
The Single Whip Reforms of 1581, imposed by Chief Grand Secretary Zhang Juzheng ordered that all land taxes in China must be paid in silver. This reform monetized the Chinese tax system
Straits of Malacca
well-traveled stretch of water between Malaysia and Indonesia used for trade along the Spice Route
Suleiman the Magnificent
The most illustrious sultan of the Ottoman Empire (r. 1520-1566); also known as Suleiman Kanuni, 'The Lawgiver.' He significantly expanded the empire in the Balkans and eastern Mediterranean. (p. 526)
Thirty Years War
(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
Tokugawa Bakufu System
a feudal regime of Japan established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city, Edo, which now is called Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo Castle from 1603 until 1868, when it was abolished during the Meiji Restoration.
Treaty of Westphalia
Ended Thirty Years War in 1648; granted right to individual rulers within the Holy Roman Empire to choose their own religion-either Protestant or Catholic
the palace in Rome in which the Pope lives; the control center of the Roman Catholic Church
He lead seven great voyages. After he died, the government decided they didn't want to focus on voyages anymore, and put all their focus on Chinese culture. The government stopped the building of ships and letting ships with more than 2 masts come in.
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