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27 terms

Ch 13&14 Roman Science and Art & Early Christianity

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Cicero
a great Roman orator and consul - took Greek philosophies and interpreted them so Romans could live them - "Participate, but do the virtuous thing always" & what virtue is was not subjective
Marcus Aurelius
a Roman emperor-philosopher - wrote Meditiations
Seneca
a tutor for Nero, Nero tried to kill him so he committed suicide - he wrote tragedies after the pattern of the Greeks
Tacitus
Rome's greatest historian - his degree of objectivity and verification of truthfulness are not so great, but it is more entertaining to read
Pliny the Elder
wrote Natural History which tried to collect the entire knowledge of humankind about the natural world - a lot of it is interesting and accurate, but some has been proven to be errors
Arch of Titus
a relief that shows the sacking of Jerusalem
Coliseum
built to hold 50,000-60,000 spectators, three levels of seats, had a cloth covering, rooms and passageways underneath
Pantheon
has a huge dome - a temple for all the Roman gods - the best preserved ancient Roman structure
concrete
the glue that held the Roman empire together - the material that enabled much of Roman construction - the most advanced material of the time
Ptolemy
a Greek scientist of the Roman period who developed an astronomical system to describe the movement of the stars and planets - also did some work with optics
Hero
an Alexandrian Greek scientist of the Roman period who developed a primitive steam engine
Galen
Rome's greatest physician - worked with emperors and gladiators - built upon Hippocrates and also said that taking notes and observations was useful
Appian Way
the main thoroughfare into Rome - Nero crucified Christians along the road and then lit them on fire at night
Eusebius
the Christian bishop of Caesarea - wrote The History of the Church, discussed problems of succession and false doctrine
orthodox
the doctrinal position that gradually emerged as dominant
heretical
any view of Christianity that was not orthodox
Clement of Alexandria
the leader of the catechetical school in Alexandria - opposed the appointment of a man named Peter as bishop - his foremost student was Origen
St. Augustine
lived in Egypt and created the first rules for monastic orders
St. Basil
wrote the principle rules governing most Orthodox church monasteries
St. Benedict
wrote new rules in the sixth century that established the basis of modern Roman Catholic monasticism
Diocletian
a Roman emperor that required all inhabitants of Rome to sacrifice to the Roman gods or be put to death
Arian Christianity
decreed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser status of a demigod
Nicene Council
resolved conflict in doctrine within the Christian church - the Trinity is the basis of the Nicene Creed - defined what was orthodox
Jerome
assembled a group of writings that was officially pronounced as canonical by the Bishop of Rome
St. Augustine
was converted to Christianity after not being able to find answers and leading a sinful life - wrote the book The City of God - his teachings are the basis for the Catholic church
The City of God
written by St. Augustine - a defense of Christianity in the face of the collapse of the Roman Empire, also a Christian interpretation of world history and an outline for spiritual refinement
Pope Gregory I
pope in the sixth century - lots of missionary work to the pagans - accommodation of the church to pagan beliefs so the pagans would convert to Christianity - Christianity began its dominance over paganism in Europe