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a great Roman orator and consul - took Greek philosophies and interpreted them so Romans could live them - "Participate, but do the virtuous thing always" & what virtue is was not subjective

Marcus Aurelius

a Roman emperor-philosopher - wrote Meditiations


a tutor for Nero, Nero tried to kill him so he committed suicide - he wrote tragedies after the pattern of the Greeks


Rome's greatest historian - his degree of objectivity and verification of truthfulness are not so great, but it is more entertaining to read

Pliny the Elder

wrote Natural History which tried to collect the entire knowledge of humankind about the natural world - a lot of it is interesting and accurate, but some has been proven to be errors

Arch of Titus

a relief that shows the sacking of Jerusalem


built to hold 50,000-60,000 spectators, three levels of seats, had a cloth covering, rooms and passageways underneath


has a huge dome - a temple for all the Roman gods - the best preserved ancient Roman structure


the glue that held the Roman empire together - the material that enabled much of Roman construction - the most advanced material of the time


a Greek scientist of the Roman period who developed an astronomical system to describe the movement of the stars and planets - also did some work with optics


an Alexandrian Greek scientist of the Roman period who developed a primitive steam engine


Rome's greatest physician - worked with emperors and gladiators - built upon Hippocrates and also said that taking notes and observations was useful

Appian Way

the main thoroughfare into Rome - Nero crucified Christians along the road and then lit them on fire at night


the Christian bishop of Caesarea - wrote The History of the Church, discussed problems of succession and false doctrine


the doctrinal position that gradually emerged as dominant


any view of Christianity that was not orthodox

Clement of Alexandria

the leader of the catechetical school in Alexandria - opposed the appointment of a man named Peter as bishop - his foremost student was Origen

St. Augustine

lived in Egypt and created the first rules for monastic orders

St. Basil

wrote the principle rules governing most Orthodox church monasteries

St. Benedict

wrote new rules in the sixth century that established the basis of modern Roman Catholic monasticism


a Roman emperor that required all inhabitants of Rome to sacrifice to the Roman gods or be put to death

Arian Christianity

decreed that Christ was only a mortal man begotten of God and reduced his role to the lesser status of a demigod

Nicene Council

resolved conflict in doctrine within the Christian church - the Trinity is the basis of the Nicene Creed - defined what was orthodox


assembled a group of writings that was officially pronounced as canonical by the Bishop of Rome

St. Augustine

was converted to Christianity after not being able to find answers and leading a sinful life - wrote the book The City of God - his teachings are the basis for the Catholic church

The City of God

written by St. Augustine - a defense of Christianity in the face of the collapse of the Roman Empire, also a Christian interpretation of world history and an outline for spiritual refinement

Pope Gregory I

pope in the sixth century - lots of missionary work to the pagans - accommodation of the church to pagan beliefs so the pagans would convert to Christianity - Christianity began its dominance over paganism in Europe

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