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Arts and Humanities
Bilingual education terms
Terms in this set (84)
Within Title III of NCLB, each state is required to determine Annual Measureable Achievement Objectives (AMAOs). AMAOs indicate how much English language proficiency (reading, writing, speaking, listening, and comprehension) children served with Title III funds are expected to gain each year. See also AYP for similar content area requirements.
Within Title I of NCLB, each state is required to determine Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). AYP indicates the expected growth expected each year in content areas (reading, language arts, and math currently, with science added in 2005-2006) for students served with Title I funds. There are various penalties for schools not reaching AYP across 2-4 years. See also AMAO for similar language proficiency requirements.
This program is often referred to as "playground English" or "survival English." It is the basic language ability required for face-to-face communication where linguistic interactions are embedded in a situational context (see context-embedded language). This language, which is highly contextualized and often accompanied by gestures, is relatively undemanding cognitively and relies on the context to aid understanding. BICS is much more easily and quickly acquired than CALP, but is not sufficient to meet the cognitive and linguistic demands of an academic classroom
An educational program in which two languages are used to provide content matter instruction. As with the term bilingualism, bilingual education is "a simple label for a complex phenomenon." An important distinction is between those programs that use and promote two languages and those where bilingual children are present, but bilingualism is not fostered in the curriculum
Put simply, bilingualism is the ability to use two languages. However, defining bilingualism is problematic since individuals with varying bilingual characteristics may be classified as bilingual. There may exist distinctions between ability and use of a language; variation in proficiency across the four language dimensions (listening, speaking, reading and writing); differences in proficiency between the two languages; variation in proficiency due to the use of each language for different functions and purposes; and variation in language proficiency over time (Baker & Jones, 1998). People may become bilingual either by acquiring two languages at the same time in childhood or by learning a second language sometime after acquiring their first language.
The ability to effectively communicate or understand thoughts and ideas through two languages' grammatical systems and vocabulary, using their written symbols
Is the language ability required for academic achievement in a context-reduced environment. Examples of context-reduced environments include classroom lectures and textbook reading assignments. CALP is distinguished from Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS)
Castañeda v. Pickard
In 1981, in the most significant decision regarding the education of language-minority students since Lau v. Nichols, the 5th Circuit Court established a three-pronged test for evaluating programs serving ELLs. According to the Castañeda standard, schools must:
base their program on educational theory recognized as sound or considered to be a legitimate experimental strategy;
implement the program with resources and personnel necessary to put the theory into practice; and
evaluate programs and make adjustments where necessary to ensure that adequate progress is being made. [648 F. 2d 989 (5th Circuit, 1981)].
The term used to describe any switch among languages in the course of a conversation, whether at the level of words, sentences or blocks of speech. Code-switching most often occurs when bilinguals are in the presence of other bilinguals who speak the same languages
Words in different languages related to the same root, e.g. education (English) and educación (Spanish)
This approach to teaching ESL (also referred to as the functional approach or communicative approach) is based on the theory that language is acquired through exposure to meaningful and comprehensible messages, rather than being learned through the formal study of grammar and vocabulary. The goal of communicative-based ESL is communicative competence (Baker, 2001).
The ability to interact appropriately with others by knowing what to say, to whom, when, where, and how (Hymes, 1972).
An explanation of language learning, proposed by Stephen Krashen, that language acquisition is a result of learners being exposed to language constructs and vocabulary that are slightly beyond their current level. This "input" is made comprehensible to students by creating a context that supports its meaning
Consolidated State Application
Under NCLB, each state must periodically submit a plan for the education of K-12 students in public education. It includes goals and definitions for AMAOs, AYP, highly qualified teachers, and other aspects of NCLB-mandated education (U.S. Department of Education).
Generally refers to academic subjects in school; e.g., math, science, English/language arts, reading, and social sciences. Language proficiency (English or other language) may affect these areas, but is not included. Assessments of language proficiency differ from those of language arts.
This approach to teaching ESL makes use of instructional materials, learning tasks, and classroom techniques from academic content areas as the vehicle for developing language, content, cognitive and study skills. English is used as the medium of instruction
Communication occurring in a context that offers help to comprehension (e.g. visual clues, gestures, expressions, specific location). Language where there are plenty of shared understandings and where meaning is relatively obvious due to help from the physical or social nature of the conversation
Language where there are few clues as to the meaning of the communication apart from the words themselves. The language is likely to be abstract
Developmental Bilingual Education
A program that teaches content through two languages and develops both languages with the goal of bilingualism and biliteracy. See also late-exit bilingual education
Early-Exit Bilingual Education
A form of transitional bilingual education (TBE) in which children move from bilingual education programs to English-only classes in the first or second year of schooling
English language development (ELD) means instruction designed specifically for ELLs to develop their listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in English. This type of instruction is also known as "English as a second language" (ESL), "teaching English to speakers of other languages" (TESOL), or "English for speakers of other languages" (ESOL). ELD, ESL, TESOL or ESOL standards are a version of English language arts standards that have been crafted to address the specific developmental stages of students learning English.
English Language Learners (ELLs) are students whose first language is not English and who are in the process of learning English. Also see LEP.
A set of criteria for designation of students as ELLs and placement in bilingual education, ESL, or other language support services. Criteria usually include a home language survey and performance on an English language proficiency test.
English as a second language (ESL) is an educational approach in which ELLs are instructed in the use of the English language. Their instruction is based on a special curriculum that typically involves little or no use of the native language, focuses on language (as opposed to content) and is usually taught during specific school periods. For the rest of the school day, students may be placed in mainstream classrooms, an immersion program, or a bilingual education program. Every bilingual education program has an ESL component (U.S. General Accounting Office, 1994). See also ELD, pullout ESL, ESOL, content-based ESL.
English for speakers of other languages (see E
A set of criteria for ending special services to ELLs and placing them in mainstream English-only classes as fluent English speakers. This is usually based on a combination of performance on an English language proficiency test and grades, standardized test scores, and/or teacher recommendations. In some cases, this redesignation of students may be based on the amount of time they have been in special programs
Words in different languages that sound alike and have similar form but unrelated meanings (CA ELD Standards, 2000), like embarrassed (English) and embarazada (Spanish, meaning "pregnant").
The process of acquiring a first or second language. Some linguists distinguish between acquisition and learning of a second language, using the former to describe the informal development of a person's second language and the latter to describe the process of formal study of a second language. Other linguists maintain that there is no clear distinction between formal learning and informal acquisition. The process of acquiring a second language is different from acquiring the first (Baker, 2000).
Late-Exit Bilingual Education
Those programs provide bilingual instruction for three or more years of schooling. Late-exit programs may be transitional or developmental bilingual programs, depending on the goal of the program (Baker, 2000). See developmental bilingual education and transitional bilingual education
Lau v. Nichols
Suit filed by Chinese parents in San Francisco in 1974 that led to a landmark Supreme Court ruling that identical education does not constitute equal education under the Civil Rights Act. School districts must take "affirmative steps" to overcome educational barriers faced by non-English speakers
Local educational agency (e.g., a school district).
Limited English proficient (LEP) is the term used by the federal government, most states and local school districts to identify those students who have insufficient English to succeed in English-only classrooms (Lessow-Hurley, 1991). Increasingly, English language learner (ELL) or English learner (EL) are used in place of LEP.
Education programs established mainly to meet the needs of children of farm laborers, who often face such challenges as poverty, poor health care, limited English proficiency, and the readjustments of moving often from school to school. Migrant Education is part of Title I of the ESEA
This term variously means (a) the language learned from the mother, (b) the first language learned, (c) the 'mother tongue' of an area or country, (d) the stronger (or dominant) language at any time of life, (e) the language used most by a person, (f) the language toward which the person has the more positive attitude and affection (Baker, 2000). See also native languag
Developed by linguist Stephen Krashen and teacher Tracy Terrell (1983), the Natural Approach is a methodology for fostering second language acquisition which focuses on teaching communicative skills, both oral and written. It is based on Krashen's theory of language acquisition which assumes that speech emerges in four stages: (1) preproduction (listening and gestures), (2) early production (short phrases), (3) speech emergence (long phrases and sentences), and (4) intermediate fluency (conversation) (Lessow-Hurley, 1991).
The language a person acquires first in life, or identifies with as a member of an ethnic group (Baker, 2000). See also mother tongue.
The National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA) is funded by the U.S. Department of Education (www.ed.gov), Office of English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (OELA) (www.ed.gov/offices/OELA) to collect, analyze, synthesize, and disseminate information related to the education of linguistically and culturally diverse students. www.ncela.gwu.edu
A program that addresses the specific needs of recent immigrant students, most often at the middle and high school level, especially those with limited or interrupted schooling in their home countries. Major goals of newcomer programs are to acquire beginning English language skills along with core academic skills and to acculturate to the U.S. school system. Some newcomer programs also include primary language development and an orientation to the student's new community
No Child Left Behind Act
The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is the most recent reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education act of 1965. The act contains the President's four basic education reform principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on teaching methods based on scientifically-based research. For more information on No Child Left Behind, see the U.S. Department of Education's No Child Left Behind website (www.nochildleftbehind.gov).
The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA), Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement for Limited English Proficient Students (www.ed.gov/offices/OELA) in the U.S. Department of Education was established in 1974 by Congress to help school districts meet their responsibility to provide an equal education opportunity to ELLs.
The Office for Civil Rights , U.S. Department of Education, has responsibility for enforcing Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. OCR investigates allegations of civil rights violations and initiates investigations of compliance with federal civil rights laws in schools that serve special student populations, including language-minority students. The office has developed several policies with regard to measuring compliance with the Lau v. Nichols decision. For more information, see the OCR resources about ELLs.
A program in which LEP students are "pulled out" of regular, mainstream classrooms for special instruction in English as a second language
Providing contextual supports for meaning during instruction or assessment, such as visual displays, classified lists, or tables or graphs
An educational program whose success is demonstrated through sound evaluation and/or true experimental research. See also evidence-based.
This term is used in several ways and can refer to: 1) the second language learned chronologically, 2) a language other than the native language, 3) the weaker language, or 4) the less frequently used language. Second language may also be used to refer to third and fourth learned languages
An instructional approach used to make academic instruction in English understandable to ELLs, to help them acquire proficiency in English while at the same time achieving in content areas. Sheltered English instruction differs from ESL in that English is not taught as a language with a focus on learning the language. Rather, content knowledge and skills are the goals. In the sheltered classroom, teachers use simplified language, physical activities, visual aids, and the environment to teach vocabulary for concept development in mathematics, science, social studies and other subjects
Sink or Swim
Programs where the course material is taught only in the dominant language of the country, e.g., English in the United States, without special concern for student comprehension. This approach violates the civil rights of limited English proficient children, which are protected under the 1974 Supreme Court decision in Lau v. Nichols. Sometimes called language submersion
Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (TESOL) is a professional association of teachers, administrators, researchers and others concerned with promoting scholarship, the disseminating of information, and strengthening instruction and research in the teaching of English to speakers of other languages and dialects.
Preparing, training and recruiting high quality teachers and principals, authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Title II, as amended. The purposes of this title are: to provide assistance to state and local educational agencies and to institutions of higher education with teacher education programs to implement projects designed to improve teaching and learning in the core academic subjects; to collect and disseminate exemplary mathematics and science education instructional materials; to reform teacher preparation and certification standards; and to develop comprehensive, performance-based assessment and professional development strategies that will enhance connections between assessment, teaching, and student learning. Funds can be used to provide training to teachers who work with limited English proficient students (US Department of Education, www.ed.gov).
Language Instruction for Limited English Proficient Students and Immigrants (US Department of Education, www.ed.gov). Title III, under the No Child Left Behind Act, consolidates the 13 bilingual and immigrant education programs formerly entitled by Title VII of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 into a State formula program, and increases flexibility and accountability. (Most of the consolidation is accomplished only if the appropriation is at least $650 million.) The focus of the Title is on assisting school districts in teaching English to limited English proficient students and in helping these students meet the same challenging State standards required of all other students (U.S. Department of Education, www.ed.gov).
Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, or national origin in programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance. The Title VI regulatory requirements have been interpreted to prohibit denial of equal access to education because of a language minority student's limited proficiency in English
is a language-learning approach based on the relationship between language and its physical representation or execution. It emphasizes the use of physical activity for increasing meaningful learning opportunities and language retention. A TPR lesson involves a detailed series of consecutive actions accompanied by a series of commands or instructions given by the teacher. Students respond by listening and performing the appropriate actions
One of the fundamentals of bilingual education is that knowledge and skills learned in the native language may be transferred to English. This holds true for content knowledge and concepts as well as language skills, such as orthography and reading strategies. The transfer of skills shortens the developmental progression of these skills in the second language. Language skills that are not used in the first language may need to be explicitly taught in the course of second language development, but content area knowledge does not need to be explicitly retaught as long as the relevant English vocabulary is made available
Transitional Bilingual Education (TBE)
is an instructional program in which subjects are taught through two languages--English and the native language of the ELLs -- and English is taught as a second language. English language skills, grade promotion and graduation requirements are emphasized and L1 is used as a tool to learn content. The primary purpose of these programs is to facilitate the LEP student's transition to an all-English instructional environment while receiving academic subject instruction in the native language to the extent necessary. As proficiency in English increases, instruction through L1 decreases. Transitional bilingual education programs vary in the amount of native language instruction provided
Bilingual Education Act of 1968
Passed during an era of growing immigration and the Civil Rights Movement, this act provided federal funding to encourage local school districts to try approaches incorporating native-language instruction.
Developmental bilingual education
Programs that foster parallel learning in two languages. Bilingual instructors teach academic subjects in the students' primary language. This enhances students' confidence and subject-matter comprehension - although according to critics, it interferes with their acquisition of English. Its objective is to create bilingual students. This approach is often used with K-6 students.
Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1974
This act of Congress endorsed the principle of the Lau v. Nichols decision: that leaving limited English-proficiency students to "sink or swim" in an English-only program made "a mockery of public education."
Programs where teachers use "sheltered English," also known as "alternate immersion," which is a simplified vocabulary and sentence structure to teach school subjects. Teachers may also use the "structured immersion" method of teaching in English: the teacher understands the native language and students may speak it to the teacher, but the teacher generally answers only in English.
Programs where the course material is taught only in the dominant language of the country, e.g., English in the United States, without special concern for student comprehension. Also called the "sink or swim" approach.
Limited English proficiency (LEP) students
Students who demonstrate lower English comprehension, verbal and written skills than other students in their age group. In 1997, LEP students accounted for five percent of all public school students. The rate of growth in the number of LEP students is two and a half times that of the general school population
Plyler v. Doe
The 1982 Supreme Court decision that struck down a Texas law limiting access to public education for children who could prove legal residency or full tuition. The decision supports all children's access to free public education.
Transitional bilingual education
A program that teaches academic subjects in the students' primary language but progressively uses more English. As the students' English-language proficiency increases, the primary language is dropped. This method seeks to place students in English classrooms more rapidly than maintenance or developmental approaches. It is the most common method used in the U.S.
Additive bilingual education
Bilingual education program models that develop and maintain students' primary language while simultaneously adding a second language. In additive bilingual education programs there is no loss to students' primary language or culture.
A bilingual learner who has equal proficiency in both languages. Some bilingual scholars believe that balanced bilingualism is a theory because bilingual learners may never achieve equal proficiency in both languages.
those are an additive form of bilingual education where language minority and language majority students are integrated during the instructional day and are taught two languages. Dual Immersion programs are also sometimes referred as two-way immersion or dual language education.
Early-exit transitional bilingual education
A bilingual education model that provides primary language instruction for a short amount of time until students are transitioned into English instruction. Students in early-exit transitional programs are typically transitioned into English instruction in second or third grade.
Subtractive bilingual education
Bilingual education program models that provide primary language instruction on a temporary basis before students are provided instruction exclusively in English. Transitional bilingual education programs are subtractive in nature.
ACTFL or American Council; of the Teaching of Foreign Languages identifies 5 levels
preproduction- early production- intermediate-advance proficiency- superior.
Whole language approach WLA
means it that language should not be separated into separate components or skills but experienced as a whole system of communication. Authentic text are preferred - especially literature and the use of language for personal communication
Strategies for WLA
reading aloud to children-journal writing- sustained silent reading- HOT skills- student choice reading materials- frequent conferences-
Language across curriculum
is the approach teachers in all content areas carry out language development activities associated with their language associated with their individual content area
Language experience approach LEA
this approach is based on the assumption that students' prior experience need to be used as a bridge to new ideas and concepts.
CALLA model or Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach
Is an ESL model designed to promote English language development through content areas >it is based on cognitive psychology, w students becoming active participants in the learning process by constructing knowledge.
metacognitive- cognitive and social
is a teaching strategy designed to create a low anxiety learning environment where students work together in small groups to achieve instructional goals.
Tejas LEE Inventario de lectura en espanol
shows proficiency in Spanish reading. The test is given twice a year to children in the bilingual (Sp) education program. it covers basic skills like phonics, word segmentation, blending, phonemic & phonological awareness & reading comprehension.
TPRI Texas Proficiency Reading Inventory
is the equivalent of LEE, covering similar language components, but administered in English.
TOP. Texas Observation Protocol
is a checklist to record the English progress of ELLs in listening, speaking, reading and writing. This is one of two test design by TEA w accountability of NCLB
EOC End Of Course examination
measure the statewide curriculum of certain High school courses to ensure high academic standards top graduate.
SDAA State Developed Alternative Assessment
is for special education students in grades 3 t 8 who are receiving instruction in the TEKS but for whom statewide assessments are inappropriate measure of academic progress.
LPT Language Proficiency Test
is use determine and document language proficiency in L1 and L2
RPTE Reading Proficiency Test in English
measures Ells annual growth in English reading proficiency and is used along w the English and/or Spanish test to provided comprehensive assessment system for Ells. This test is for grades 3 -12
TELPAS Texas English Language Proficiency Assessment System.
is administered to all limited English proficient (LEP) students in grades Kindergarten through grade 12. Students are assessed in four domains including Reading, Speaking, Listening, and Writing. The assessments are designed to assess the progress that LEP students make in learning the English language. In terms of their proficiency, students are rated as beginner, intermediate, advanced, or advanced high.
TELPAS results are used to
Help parents monitor the progress their children make in learning English
Inform instructional planning and program exit decisions for individual students
Report performance to local school boards, school professionals, and the community
Evaluate programs, resources, and staffing patterns
Evaluate districts and campuses in a variety of state and federal accountability measures
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