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Stats Chapter 7,8, and 9
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Terms in this set (98)
A hypothesis is best defined as
an educated guess
The two main categories of hypothesis are
null and research
A sample is
a smaller group selected from a given population
Samples should be selected from populations in such a way that
the sample as close as possible matches the characteristics of the population
When the sample accurately represents the population, the results of the study are said to have a high degree of
generalizability
____________ refers to a measure of how well a sample approximates the characteristic of a population
Sampling error
The null hypothesis is
a statement of equality between two variables
A statement reflecting that two or more things are equal to, or unrelated to, each other is called
a null hypothesis
The null hypothesis acts as both a(n) ________ and a(n) __________ against which the actual outcome of the study can be measured
starting point/ benchmark
__________________ means before the fact
A priori
The __________ helps to define a range within an y observed differences between groups can be attributed to chance or due to something other than chance
null hypothesis
A statement which postulates a relationship between variable is referred to as a
research hypothesis
Which of the following statements is an example of the null hypothesis
The weight gain of rats on a low-fat diet is not a different from rats on a high-fat diet
"There is no differences in weight between rats fed low-diets and rats fed high-fiber diets" is an example of a(n)
null hypothesis
How many research hypotheses can you have for any one null hypothesis?
as many as you'd like
Which hypothesis is NOT a statement of inequality?
null hypothesis
Which of the following statements is the best example of a traditional research hypothesis?
The heart rate of individuals engaged in aerobic exercise for 20 minutes will be higher than individuals who have been resting for 20 minutes
"The average mathematics scores of kindergartners with preschool experience is greater than kindergartners without preschool experiences" is an example of a(n)
directional hypothesis
A ______________ research hypothesis suggests a difference between groups, but the direction of the difference is NOT specified
directional hypothesis
A ______________ research hypothesis suggests a difference between groups, and the direction of the difference is specified
directional
An example of a nondirectional research hypothesis is
There is a relationship between a high-fat diet and weight gain
An example of a directional research hypothesis is
There is a negative relationship between a high-fiber diet and low cholesterol
Which of the following is an example of a nondirectional research hypothesis equation?
H1: A≠B
Which of the following is an example of directional research hypothesis equation?
H1: A>B
H1: A = B is an example of
null hypothesis
A ____________ test reflects a ______________ hypothesis
one-tailed / directional
A ____________ test reflects a nondirectional hypothesis
two-tailed
Null hypotheses are always written using __________ letters
Greek
Research hypotheses are always written using __________ letters
Roman
Null hypotheses refer to the _________, whereas research hypotheses refer to the _________
population / sample
Which is the best example of a well-written hypothesis?
Semi-annual dental check ups will result in fewer cavities in children.
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a well-written hypothesis?
It is long and complex
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of a well-written hypothesis?
It is written in question form.
The normal curve is also called a
bell-shaped curve
The normal curve represents a distribution where the __________, ___________, and ___________ are equal to each other
mean/median/mode
One characteristic of a bell-shaped curve is that it is
symmetrical
Asymptotic means
the tails of a normal curve come closer and closer to the horizontal axis, but never touch it
According to the text, a data set is considered to be large if it has more than ____________ data points
30
Sets of data are normally distributed
more often when the sample size is greater than 30
Which of the following is NOT normally distributed?
Handedness
Given a population distribution of women's heights with a mean of 5 feet 6 inches, which value is least probable?
6 feet 1 inch
If a distribution has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15, what value would be +2 standard deviations from the mean?
130
If a distribution has a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 5, what value would be -1 standard deviations from the mean?
45
If a distribution has a mean of 35 and a standard deviation of 5, what value would be +1.5 standard deviations from the mean?
42.5
If a distribution has a mean of 35 and a standard deviation of 5, what value would be -2.5 standard deviations from the mean?
22.5
What percentage of scores will fall between -3 and +3 standard deviations in a normal distribution?
99.99%
What two scores would divide a normal distribution such that 64.26% of the general population falls within them if the mean is 100 and the standard deviation is 15?
85-115
If a normal distribution of scores has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 10, what percentage of scores would lie above 2 standard deviations?
2.28%
If a normal distribution of scores has a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 10, what percentage of scores would lie below 3 standard deviations?
.13%
What percentage of scores lies between the mean and -1 standard deviation for a normal distribution with a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15?
34.13%
What percentage of scores lies between 2 and 3 standard deviations below the mean?
2.15%
Standard scores are comparable because
they are standardized in units of standard deviations
Z score is a type of ____________ score.
standard
Based on the formula for the z score, s represents the
distribution standard deviation
Based on the formula for the z score, X represents the
individual score
Can you compute a raw score given the z score?
Yes, given the mean and standard deviation
What z score is associated with a raw score of 240 in distribution with a mean of 200 and a standard deviation of 25?
z = 1.6
What is the raw score associated with a z score of 2.7 for a distribution with a mean of 150 and a standard deviation of 20?
204
What can you tell about the raw score if the corresponding z score is +2.5?
The raw score is above the mean.
The z score for the mean is
0
In a normal distribution, what is the z score associated with the mode?
0
If a z score = 2.5, it is _____ standard deviations above the mean
2.5
If a z score = 1.50, the area between the mean and the z score is
43.32
A percentage or area under the curve can also represent the
probability of a score occurring
What is the probability of a score falling at or below a z score of 1.16?
87.7%
What is the probability that a raw score will fall between the z scores of -.41 and 1.03?
50.76%
(z score * 10) + 50 = a ____ score.
T
T scores and z scores are both
standard scores
A __________ score is one that comes from a distribution with a predefined mean and standard deviation.
standardized
A(n) ____________ difference is due to some systematic influence and not due to chance
significant
The risk set by the researcher for rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true is called the
significance level
p < .05 means that there is less than 1 chance in ____ that any differences found were not due to the hypothesized reason.
20
The degree of risk you are willing to take that you will reject a null hypothesis when it is actually true is called
significance level
The significance level is also known as
Type I error
If you reject a null hypothesis and (in reality) there is a NO difference between two groups, then you have
made a Type I error
If you accept the null hypothesis and (in reality) there is a difference between two groups, then you have
made a Type II error
If you accept the null hypothesis and (in reality) there is no difference between two groups, then you have
not made an error
If you reject the null hypothesis and (in reality) there is a difference between two groups, then you have
not made an error
The Greek symbol ___________ is used to represent a type I error
a
The Greek symbol ____________ is used to represent a type II error
B
Power can be written mathematically as
1 - B
Which is most common level of alpha?
.05
The statement, "the probability of observing an outcome is less than 5%" can also be written as
p < .05
How well a statistical test can detect and reject a null hypothesis when it is true, refers to _________
power
As the size of your sample _______________ , the risk for a _______________
increases / Type II error decreases
If a researcher sets the decision rule p value at .05, what is the probability of making a Type I error?
5%
As the ____________ decreases, the risk for a ____________
Statistical significance
Which statistical test should be used given the following information: examining differences between two groups, and the same participants were tested more than once?
T test for dependent sample
Which statistical test should be used given the following information: examining differences between three groups, and the same participants were tested more than once?
Repeated measures analysis of variance
Which statistical test should be used given the following information: examining differences between three groups, and the participants were not tested more than once?
Simple analysis of variance
Which statistical test should be used given the following information: examining differences between two groups, and the participants were not tested more than once?
T test for independent samples
Which statistical test should be used given the following information: examining the relationship between two variables?
T test for the correlation coefficient
Which statistical test examines relationships between two variables?
T test for the correlation coefficient
Which statistical test examines relationships between more than two variables?
Regression, factor analysis, or canonical analysis
The value you would expect the test statistic to yield if the null hypothesis is true is the
critical value
The entire curve represents
all possible outcomes based on a specific null hypothesis
For a one-tail test, if the obtained value falls to the right of the critical value, you should conclude:
reject the null
Another name for the test statistic value is
obtained value
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