35 terms

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Grammar
The mental representation of a speakers' linguistic competence; what a speaker knows about a language, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and lexicon. A linguistic description of a speakers' mental grammar.
Lexicon
The component of the grammar containing speakers' knowledge about morphemes and words; a speakers mental dictionary
Universal Grammar
The innate principles and properties that pertain to the grammars of all human languages.
Discreteness
A fundamental property of human language in which larger linguistic units are perceived to be composed of smaller linguistic units. Ex cat is perceived as the phonemes /k/ae/t/; the cat is perceived as the and cat.
Phonology
The sound system of a language, the component of a grammar that includes the inventory of sounds and rules for their combination and pronunciation; the study of the sound systems of all languages
Creative Aspect
Speakers ability to combine the finite number of linguistic units of their language to produce and understand an infinite range of novel sentences.
Arbitrary
The property of a language whereby there is no natural or intrinsic relationship between the way a word is pronounced and it's meaning.
Innateness Hypothesis
The theory that the human species is genetically equipped with a universal grammar, which provides the basic design for all human languages.
Syntax
The rules of sentence formation; the component of the mental grammar that represents speakers' knowledge of the structure of phrases and sentences.
Semantics
The study of the linguistic meanings of morphemes, words, phrases, and sentences.
Morphology
The study of the structure of words; the component of the grammar that includes the rules of word formation.
Phonetics
The study of linguistic speech sounds, how they are produced, how they are perceived and their physical aspects.
Linguistic Competence
The knowledge of a language represented by the mental grammar that accounts for speakers' linguistic ability and creativity; mostly an unconscious knowledge.
Descriptive Grammar
A linguist's description or model of the mental grammar, including the units, structures, and rules. An explicit statement of what speakers know about their language.
Displacement
The capacity to talk or sign messages that are unrelated to here and now.
Prosodic Features
The duration, pitch or loudness of speech sounds.
Constituent
A syntactic unit in a phrase structure tree.
Pragmatics
The study of how context and situation affect meaning; the study of extra truth conditional meaning.
Maxims of Conversation
Conversational conventions that people appear to obey to give coherence and sincerity to discourse.
Productive
Refers to morphological rules that can be used freely and apply to all forms to create new words. Ex the addition to an adjective of -ish meaning 'having somewhat of the quality' such as newish, incredible-ish.
Recursive Rule
A phrase structure rule that repeats its own category on its right side; permitting phrase structures of potentially unlimited length, corresponding to that aspect of speakers' linguistic competence.
Prescriptive Grammar
Rules of grammar brought about by grammarians' attempts to legislate what speakers' grammatical rules should be rather than what they are.
Poverty of the Stimulus/ Impoverished Data
Refers to the incomplete, noisy, and unstructured utterances that incomplete sentences, together with a lack of concrete evidence about abstract grammatical rules and structure.
Phonemic Feature
phonetic properties of phonemes that account for their ability to contrast meaning of words.
Phonetic Feature
Phonetic properties of segments that distinguish one segment from another.
Implicature
An inference based not only on an utterance, but also on assumptions about what the speaker is trying to achieve. Ex. Are you using the ketchup to mean please pass the ketchup
Linguistic Theory
A theory of the principles that characterize all human languages; UG.
Semantic Features
Conceptual elements by which a person understands the meanings of words and sentences. Ex "female" is this of the nouns girl and filly.
Morpheme
Smallest unit of linguistic meaning or function. Ex. sheepdogs has three.
Linguistics
the scientific study of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics.
Grammatical
Describes a well-formed sequence of words, one forming to rules of syntax.
Orthography
spelling; the written form of a language
Rules of Syntax
Principles of grammar that account for the grammaticality of sentences, their hierarchal structure, their word order, whether there is structural ambiguity ect.
Syntactic Category
Traditionally called "parts of speech"; also called grammatical categories; expressions of the same grammatical category can generally substitute for one another without loss of grammaticality. Ex NP, VP, Adj., auxiliary verb.
Duality of Patterning
A small number of meaningless units are combined to produce a large number of meaningful units.