US History: Unit 3 Vocabulary


Terms in this set (...)

French & Indian War
Britsh vs. French & their Indian allies; Led to Great Britain's dominance in North America; left debts that colonies had to pay back to England.
Treaty of Paris, 1763
Agreement that ended the French & Indian War
Proclamation of 1763
Prohibited settlers from crossing the Appalachian Mountains to live. Angered colonists.
Intolerable Acts
Laws put into place following the Boston Tea Party that included the closing of Boston Harbor.
Stamp Act
Tax set by the British for the colonists on all legal documents such as newspapers and marriage licenses.
Sons & Daughters of Liberty
Groups started by Samuel Adams after the Stamp Act that led boycotts, protests and acs of violence against British officials.
Common Sense
Pamphlet written by Thomas Paine; said colonists should separate from Britain; blamed the King for problems.
The American Revolution
The war for independence from Great Britain
Declaration of Independence
Document declaring independence from Britain.
Thomas Jefferson & the Committee of Five
Committee formed to write the rationale for independence. Thomas Jefferson became the main author of the Declaration of Independence.
Articles of Confederation
1st written plan of government for the U.S; created a loose union between the states.
The United States Constitution
Document that sets up the US Government; supreme law of the U.S; Created 3 branches of gov't with separation of powers and checks & balances.
Bill of Rights
First 10 Amendments to the Constitution; Added to convince the Anti-Federalists to support the Constitution. Granted individual and state's rights.
Committees of Correspondence
groups of colonials who spread the word between colonies about grievances Britain was doing to them.
Thomas Paine
Wrote Common Sense - encouraged colonists to declare independence from England.
John Locke's ideas that influenced the Declaration of Independence.
His ideas about natural rights were used in the Declaration of Independence. All men are created equal and have right to life, liberty and property.
Treaty of Paris, 1783
Treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. (1) Gave America its independence from England (2) US boundaries set (3) Americans had to pay all prewar debts.
Marquis de Lafayette
Frenchman who helped the Amricans win the Revolution and gain for supplies and reinforcements for the Patriots.
George Washington
General of the American army during the Revolutionary War. Given credit for holding the army together.
Battle of Trenton
Battle occurred after the crossing of the Delaware River by Washington and his men. Considered a daring move by Washington.
Winter at Valley Forge
lowest point for the American army during the Revolution. Many men died due to starvation, disease, and weather. No supplies.
Lord Cornwallis
Leader of the British army. Surrendered at Yorktown after being surrounded at Chesapeake Bay.
Battle of Saratoga
Victory for the Americans; Turning point that convinced the French to join the war and help the Americans.
Battle of Yorktown
Final battle of the Revolution; A defeat for Britain; British are trapped by the French Navy in Chsapeake Bay and Lord Cornwallis surrenders to General Washington ending the war.
Shays's Rebellion
Massachusetts raised taxes to pay war debts.
Hurt farmers - they rebel. Led to a call to revise the Articles of Confederation.
James Madison
Called the "Father of the Constitution" Supporter of the Constitution; wrote many issues of The Federalists Papers.
people who wanted a strong central government and wanted the ratification of the Constitution.
The Federalists Papers
also called The Federalists. Was a group of essays written to encourage the ratification of the Constitution.
people who were against the Constitution because it created a strong central government and did not contain a Bill of Rights. Felt it would take too much power from the states; accepted the Constitution when the Bill of Rights was added.
Alexander Hamilton
Federalists; wanted a strong central gov't; helped write the Federalists Papers.
group of people bound together for a common belief or goal. Ex: political parties
3/5 Compromise
allowed 3/5ths of slaves to be counted when dealing with representation in Congress.
The Great Compromise
IMPORTANT!!!!! Allowed for a bicameral legislature with an upper house (Senate) where state representation would be equal and a lower house (House of Representatives) where representation would be based on population.
Checks & Balances
system added to the constitution that would keep one branch of the government from having more power than another.
Ex: Presidential veto
philsopher whose ideas of separation of powers infludenced the Constitution.
Separation of Powers
led to the creation of 3 branches of government with separate jobs. (1) Executive branch - enforce laws (president) (2) Legislative - makes the law (Congress)
(3) Judicial - interprets the Law (Court system)

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